Dating black book pdf

A federal grand jury has been empaneled to investigate money laundering involving the Biden family

2020.10.25 01:36 meme_kat A federal grand jury has been empaneled to investigate money laundering involving the Biden family

The Biden family could be in deep trouble
Jurisdiction
Grand Jury subpoena number
A small refresher:
The FBI does not indict anyone. The FBI can provide recommendations to the DOJ to prosecute, but ultimately it is the DOJ who decides. In recent years the FBI and DOJ has been stuffed with partisans that protected Democrats and prosecuted their political enemies.
In certain cases of high crimes that may require freedom from accusations of partisanship or political bias the Attorney General or Deputy AG may empanel a grand jury.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_jury
A grand jury is a jury—a group of citizens—empowered by law to conduct legal proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought. A grand jury may subpoena physical evidence or a person to testify. A grand jury is separate from the courts, which do not preside over its functioning.[1]
Hunter Biden laptop
Hunter Biden allegedly handed three laptops for data recovery on April 12, 2019. The Mac Repair shop owner John Paul Mac Isaac publicly stated he was hired for data recovery.
FBI Attachment A listed a new Western Digital external hard drive with a three year warranty taken into their custody. The new external drive was presumably used to store all data recovered from the water damaged laptop.
Serial Number Status Model Number Description Expiration Date
WX21A19ATFF3 IN LIMITED WARRANTY WDBLPG0020BBK-WESE MY PASSPORT FOR MAC WITH TYPE C CABLE 2TB BLACK WORLDWIDE 18-Apr-2022
Here is the invoice
FBI Attachment A also lists the following serial number for a single 2017 MacBook Pro

Biden family under investigation

The FBI took possession of Hunter Biden's laptop on December 9, 2019.
John Paul Mac Isaac, owner of the mac repair shop that serviced Hunter Biden's laptop was served with a subpoena to testify before a grand jury.
Case ID - 272D-BA-3065729 was listed on the FBI receipt of property form for Hunter' Biden's laptop.
The lead prefix "272D" is the classification for a money laundering investigation.
"BA" corresponds to the FBI Baltimore field office.
Rudy Giuliani postures that certain individuals loyal to Biden classified the laptop as part of a money laundering investigation to stall, rather than immediately acting on child porn.
FBI special agent Joshua Wilson that retrieved Hunter Biden's laptop investigates child pornography, sex crimes, and human trafficking.
What does that mean? It means a grand jury had been empaneled in secret by the Attorney General before the laptop was recovered.
The grand jury decides who will be indicted not the DOJ and not the FBI
Questions that should be asked
  1. What is the status of the FBI investigation?
  2. When was the grand jury empaneled?
  3. Why did the FBI not mark Hunter Biden and Joe Biden as national security risks and contact the DNI
  4. Why did FBI Director Christopher Wray not inform the President
  5. Why did FBI Director Christopher Wray not inform the Senate Judiciary Committee
  6. Why did FBI Director Christopher Wray not inform the Senate Intelligence Committee
  7. Why did DOJ AG William Barr not inform the President and various Senate committees mentioned above
  8. Why is the Biden campaign deflecting and not denying authenticity of emails
  9. Why are third party recipients of emails confirming authenticity
FBI Special Agent Joshua Wilson
FBI Special Agent Joshua Wilson is a long-time investigator of child pornagraphy, sex crimes, and human trafficking.
"You are seeing babies having their diapers removed so they can be assaulted," said Joshua Wilson, an FBI agent based in New Jersey who has spent nearly five years working full time on child pornography.
He was a supervising agent of the FBI's Child Abduction Rapid Deployment team
Business Insider and Western Journal independently compared the signature of FBI agent Joshua Wilson on the Hunter laptop subpoena against an older FBI document from another case and confirmed it is the same Joshua Wilson that specializes in investigating child pornography, sex crimes, and human trafficking.
A child pornography criminal complaint from 2012 includes Wilson’s signature — seemingly an exact match to what was found on the December subpoena.

It's time for the media to do their jobs and start asking questions

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2020.10.24 05:59 dbfassbinder [Confessions of the Magpie Wizard] Book 3: Dissolution, Chapter 7

Announcement:
Book 2 of Magpie Wizard will soon be landing on Amazon. I am targeting Saturday, November 7th for the launch date. This means that Book 2 will be leaving Reddit Serials, except for the allowed sample, on November 1st. This is due to Amazon's exclusivity requirements. If you want to reread any of the book before it launches on Kindle, that is your due date.
Book 2 is also available as a download for all Patrons, including the $1 tier. This is $2 less than the final Amazon cost, if you are interested in picking up the PDF or ePub versions. This will be removed on November 1st.
Cover
Book 3: Chapter 6 Book 3: Chapter 8
Are you new? You can start with the prologue of Book 1 here.
However, it's now KDP Exclusive and I can only have a small sample of the book up on Reddit. If you would like to pick it up on Kindle, Paperback or read it on Kindle Unlimited, you can find it on Amazon.
Do you want to start with Book 2? Here's Book 2's Prologue!
******************
Being the early bird had its advantages, besides putting on a good show for Mr. Maki. It let me observe the comings and goings of the class. For example, Yukiko Sato, the heiress to the unfathomably wealthy Sato conglomerate, had historically beaten me to class as often as she hadn’t. Since she had cleared the air with Hiro Takehara, though? The short girl seemed to keep arriving later and later, and always with Hiro in tow. And did I detect a few hairs out of place? Oh my, what had those two been up to?
I dismissed that idea out of hand. Those two? They had probably been holding hands. Why, a month on, they might have almost been up to hugging, or blowing each other kisses. I’m sure they would have been scandalized that I was even thinking anything untoward about them. It made me glad she had rejected me. I’d have never gotten anywhere with her.
A few other familiar faces turned up. Rafal Kowalski, who was most noteworthy for his disobedient affinity, which took on the form of a shadowy beast he simply called “Buddy.” Leo Hernandez, a frequent dueling partner during combat training. He was almost getting to the point where I had to struggle against him. Almost. Rose arrived too, chatting with some girls I didn’t know well. She gave me a wave, but didn’t interrupt the flow of her gossip. My time as Junko made me wonder how often I featured in her stories. It might explain why some of the other girls tittered behind my back.
And of course, there was my favorite familiar face among the bunch. I waved Kiyo over.
“Hi Magpie!” She leaned in and hugged me around the shoulders. It was the most public display of affection that Mr. Maki would allow, and I could feel his eyes on us, daring us to try anything untoward.
“My, aren’t you enthusiastic!” Such a pity. Kiyo was looking positively adorable, with her hair tied up in a side ponytail, letting me get a really good look at her dark, soulful eyes. I wanted to get lost in them. Instead, I satisfied myself with squeezing her hand. “You’d think it had been a year since you’d seen me.”
“The minutes feel like years. Besides, I can’t quite talk when Rose is around.”
“Oh? Where did you get that idea? Seems to me you just about told her your SatoChat password, you were disclosing so much.”
She cocked her head. “Did I do something wrong?”
“I’m just saying, if I’m not telling her a story, there might be a reason.”
Her brows knit as she parsed my words. “Why wouldn’t you tell her about Roger?”
“The poor girl already has a lot of missing friends and loved ones from England,” I replied. “No sense burdening her with more if I don’t have to.”
“Oh!” Kiyo’s hand flew over her mouth. “See, this is why I need you, Magpie. I don’t think about these things.”
“It’s alright, my dear.” I didn’t feel a stab of guilt at the lie. Devils don’t feel guilt, after all. “Let your Magpie sweat the big stuff.”
“I’ve been wanting to ask you about that,” she said. “When do I get my cute nickname?”
“Hm? Come again?”
“I’ve been calling you Magpie for ages, right? But, you haven’t come up with anything for me yet. Calling me ‘my dear’ all the time doesn’t count. You call all the girls that.”
I was grateful for the light topic. “Well, what should I call you?”
She shook her head, sending her tied hair bouncing. “Nope, doesn’t work like that. Boyfriend/girlfriend contract, you have to come up with something cute on your own.”
“I’m at a distinct disadvantage with that,” I said. “I didn’t exactly have an upbringing that encouraged such things.” The closest Mother came to a pet name for me was the time I broke her favorite vase playing with an old baseball I’d found. She’d been so beside herself that she kept calling me “Boy” over and over again. I think she hadn’t been able to recall my name.
“Oh, because you’re a cutiemuffin. Gotcha.” She tousled my hair. “It’s okay, Magpie. I know you’ll come up with something good.
“I never agreed to that cuttiemuffin nonsense,” I said. I was grinning too much to sell the complaint, though. “Who’s a cutiemuffin?” In my conversation with Kiyo, I’d missed Mariko approaching. She and I sat next to each other on the second row of the amphitheater style seating. Kiyo shifted aside to let her sit. “Kiyo, I don’t think a grown man would appreciate that kind of talk.”
“Magpie’s enjoying himself.” Kiyo scowled at Mariko from behind while she gathered her books from her shoulder bag. She didn’t care for Mariko talking down to her. She used the same tone when correcting naughty children at the Serving Wizard’s Home. Well, at least she had until a Holy Sister impersonating Rose had demolished it with a hurricane. Kiyo seemed to get the brunt of her repressed motherly instincts.
Mariko straightened up, giving me a clear look at her. My eyes drifted down for just a moment. It was unavoidable; the human boys could never keep their eyes off her, ah, “endowments” for long, so what chance did a half-devil like me stand? Frankly, I deserved some sort of endurance award for keeping eye contact with her as well as I did.
That’s what let me notice she had added a black choker to her normal black and white girls’ uniform. She seemed a bit disheveled in general. Her braid was a little frayed around the edges. As if to compensate, she was wearing more makeup than normal, which really made her lips stand out. Though, there was a bit of smudging around the edges…
Oh my, that was delicious. “So, how was Paul this morning?”
Her eyes widened, and I knew that she knew that I knew. “H-he’s doing well. He’s in good health and spirits, as always.”
“Yes, full of energy, I imagine.”
“That’s the best thing about him. He’s always very cheerful.” She unconsciously scratched at the choker. I imagined it was there to cover up a hickey. So much for the superior attitude! She’d told me once she was worried Kiyo and I had moved too fast. Awfully hypocritical, from somebody who had spent her Sunday making out in the woods, then came back around for seconds the next morning!
I didn’t say anything, though. I’d be the bigger devil. I let my sly grin do the talking.
Mr. Maki’s affinity, Sonic Blade, let him manipulate sound in interesting ways. Or, so I’d heard. I’d seen bisected orcs and goblins left in his wake, but all he ever used it for in class was getting our attention by creating thunderclaps. No matter how often it happened, we always jumped at it.
He needn’t have bothered. His booming voice was more than loud enough. “Good morning, class! Everyone, to your seats!”
“Later, Magpie,” whispered Kiyo as she shuffled back to her seat on the other side of the room.
“The school has asked me to pass along a few announcements. First off, after careful consideration, we will be extending the curfew by an additional month.” This was met by a chorus of groans, which were cut off by another snap of his fingers. “You’re all soldiers, act like it! Besides…” He held up a pile of papers in one, meaty hand. “It’s had a positive impact on your grades. Why, if I hadn’t known better, I wouldn’t have known these were from the Remedial Spellcrafting course. Hold your heads high.”
He asked for a volunteer to pass them back, which Yukiko immediately jumped at. She always was a teacher’s pet.
While Yukiko made her rounds, Mr. Maki continued. “Secondly, we will be reinstating the quarterly War Games again. They’ll be held on September 3rd, the Saturday after your written exams. I’ll expect you all to put in a good showing. For those of you who aren’t transfers, this will be capstone of your first year at the academy, and a chance to move up in the world!” He glanced at Rose and I. “Even the transfer students have a chance to graduate to the second year, if you can demonstrate that you’re up to snuff.”
“Wait, what?” Leo Hernandez shot his hand up belatedly when Mr. Maki shot him a glare. “S-sorry, sir. I meant, I thought we were still a few months behind the other classes.”
“You were and, in some ways, still are.” He let out an annoyed grunt and sat back on his desk. “You’ve made some amazing progress, but I still think you aren’t quite ready for your second year. However, the word from is from on high. The world needs you all as soon as possible. It just means that we need to step things up.”
Mariko raised her hand. “Does that mean they figured out how to keep everyone safe?”
I perked up at that. Kiyo and I had nearly been killed during my first (and to that point, only) War Game. The safety measures the school had devised were designed to let us wail on each other at something like full strength, using a magical forcefield and a pressure sensitive suit to restrict our movement to simulate wounds. Kiyo’s had paralyzed her at an inopportune time and I’d thrown myself down a mountain to save her. I still wasn’t sure what I’d been thinking.
“I’d expect our resident pacifist to ask that question,” said Mr. Maki.
Mariko shrank back, but remembered the permission he had given her to verbally spar with him after she had saved his life with healing magic. “Well, sir, since I have to put the fighters back together afterwards, I think I should get some say.”
He smirked in response. “Well, to answer you, not exactly. We are delaying as long as the Wizard Corps will allow us to try and come up with a solution.”
“I imagine the Headmaster is dragging his heels?”
“Raise your hand first, Soren!” Yukiko had arrived to give Mariko and I our tests. I couldn’t see her score, but mine was in the high eighties. Not bad for somebody who hadn’t been able to read human runes at all a few months prior. “I swear, you’re always running your mouth.”
“Why are you surprised at this point?” mumbled Mariko.
Before Yukiko could respond, Mr. Maki spoke up. “Took the words right out of my mouth, Ms. Sato. As for Mr. Marlowe’s question, I can’t confirm one way or the other.” The wink told me everything I needed to know, and some of the students tittered at the Divine Blade’s antics. “You’ll all be fine. Other schools get by just fine without the Peace Bond spells. It simply means you have to show restraint or use Proxy Spells. Which is a fine introduction to today’s lesson.”
He tapped a button on a remote he held, and the enormous touchscreen that dominated the front wall of the room came to life. It was covered in runic symbols arranged in spellcasting stanzas. “Who can tell me what raw spell this represents? How about Mr. Takehara?”
Hiro had been diligently copying from the board, but his head snapped up. He always seemed so surprised when he was called on. His face seemed to say, “aw shucks, me?” His false modesty act was always so obnoxious, if only because I had the growing suspicion it wasn’t false. People like him couldn’t be real.
“It starts off like a Fireball spell, but it’s missing the parts about generating heat?” He squinted and leaned forward in his chair. “It would make something looked like fire, but it would be cool to the touch.”
“Very good! You got it in one, Mr. Takehara.” He chuckled to himself. “I almost feel like dressing someone down, but you all have progressed so far that I don’t have an excuse.”
Leo, who sat a couple of rows to my left, raised his hand. “Sir, what’s the point of learning this spell? When would we ever use it?”
“Besides in a War Game so you didn’t burn another cadet to death?” asked Mr. Maki drolly.
“Yeah, should we be spending our time on stuff we won’t use outside of school?” The mustachioed cadet folded his arms across his chest. “We should be learning more combat spells, right? We’re still behind.”
“Let’s see if anybody else has a bit more creativity. Anyone?” Yukiko had gotten back to her seat behind Hiro and her hand shot up. “Besides Ms. Sato, who I’m sure already knows the official answers.”
While Yukiko pouted, I thought over the riddle. I was with Leo. I didn’t see any point in it. It certainly wasn’t anything that we devils had wasted our efforts on.
“It’d be faster to learn,” offered one pudgy girl in the back row. “Less runes to memorize before you can visualize the True Spell.”
“There is that, but think about why you would want to use it at all.” Nobody ventured another guess. “Well, if I won’t get any volunteers, we can have victims instead. Mr. Kowalski?”
The hapless blond boy scratched his head. “Um, it doesn’t use as much magical energy?”
“That isn’t a reason in and of itself. Name a time when you would want to use it in a fight.”
He glanced around haplessly. Seeing no help was coming, he took a breath and puzzled it over a moment. “I guess you could fake someone out with it?”
“Excellent, Mr. Kowalski! That’s a major reason,” agreed Mr. Maki. Kowalski’s jaw dropped, and a few of the other students couldn’t help but stare at him. We couldn’t think of the last time he’d gotten an answer right either. “For those of you without much in the way of energy reserves, it’s a good way to help your allies maneuver. Devils will flinch from fake flames or magical constructs just as well as the real thing.”
“Hogwash,” I said. Any son of the Horde who would fall for such trickery deserved their fate. Though, I could see an orc falling for it. They aren’t the cleverest bunch. “No demon would be fooled by that.”
“Fireball!” Mr. Maki cast with the hurried cadence of a hardened combat wizard and hurled the spell at me without warning.
My reflexes had the me casting before I even knew what I was doing. “Svalinn’s Mercy!” The barrier did nothing against the phantom flames and it looked for all the world like I was in the center of an inferno.
“Nice reflexes. But they’re wasted here.” A snap of his fingers dissipated the effect. “Maybe a demon wouldn’t be fooled, but it seems to be enough for you. If you’d been a devil, you would have just wasted valuable energy, and my squad mates could have flanked you and run you through with their swords. Do you still object to these lessons, Cadet?”
“No-no sir.” I felt something click in the back of mind and I cursed at my absentmindedness. My Mimic affinity had just copied the phantom spell, and it would be lodged in my short-term memory for a day or two. Mariko usually helped me learn spells a few days in advance to avoid just that, but we hadn’t been informed of the change in curriculum.
Mariko’s hand raised before I could. “Oh, Mr. Maki? Soren’s Mimic, remember?”
That brought him up short. “Darn, it’s too late, isn’t it?” He pulled out a dogeared manual from his desk. “You’re still tutoring him, right? Would you be willing to work on something so close to a combat spell?”
Mariko gave the teacher a relieved grin. After months of trying to force the pacifist to learn offensive magic, he was finally letting her be. “If he already knows the True Spell, I suppose I don’t see the harm.”
“Very well. You two are excused. Go work on page fifty-eight out in the hallway.” He tossed her the book, which slipped through her fingers. The older girl half-stifled a curse.
Kowalski’s Buddy emerged from his shadow, much to everyone’s surprise, especially Kowalski. The black, formless being formed a crablike claw and handed it to her.
“Why, thank you, Buddy,” said Mariko. The shadow’s soulless, white eyes seemed to soften before it vanished from whence it came. “Well, come along, Soren.”
***********
If you'd like to get early access to chapters, you can check out my Patreon.
However you choose to read, I'm grateful for you time and attention.
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2020.10.20 05:27 Army_Bot Summary For: Weekly Question Thread (10/12/2020 to 10/18/2020)

Question, if you are a married individual and if you accidentally got pregnant on Christmas Leave- and be in the very start of your AIT what is the general process that happens?
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I dont smoke pot but have been wondering about something.
Senator Harris said that if elected VP Biden and her would decriminalize pot and expunge people's records. Do we think they would remove it from UCMJ if it was no longer a legal drug? Wouldnt they have to?
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Opinion question: Honestly, which would be the smarter move? Re-uping as a 35P and getting that crazy reenlistment bonus or commissioning/going warrant? Cus you no longer qualify for the bonus and flpb once you become an officer and no longer 35P correct?
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Howdy. I'm looking to join the NG for 11B. I've seen information surface lately about the 14 week OSUT program being extended to 22 weeks. What's the likelihood that I could receive the 22 week training and/or is there any way of knowing for certain?
Much appreciated!
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Hello,
26 year old, recent college graduate in Philosophy and Chemistry. I speak Spanish and a little Levantine Arabic, been a successful salesman for the past few years. 90th percentile on DLAB practice test, 99th on ASVAB. Generally unfulfilled at my current job path. Eagle scout, firefighter, emt etc. means I'm looking for something more active.
Looking towards a career in the intelligence community, and have been considering enlisting as a 37F. Cumulative/Major GPA of a 2.95/3.7 makes me think I wouldn't be competitive as a direct hire into CIA/DIA, or for OCS. Looking at other pathways to get experience and find a meaningful career, plus history of military service in my immediate family has me leaning towards that.
Recruiter was reserve CA, and keeps trying to push all the "doorkicker SF" stories, but I'm genuinely interested in what AD 37F roles and responsibilities are. I already read AR PAM 600-3 and would love to know what the life of an AD 37F is these days, since I understand there's both the tactical and strategic postings.
Looked through the wiki, and past postings already. I'd appreciate any and all advice, since at the end of the day I don't even know what I don't know, and I want to avoid any misconceptions.
Regards,
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Alright dumb question but I’m a boot. I’m “pv2” but apparently there’s some shit I gotta do electrically to officially be a pv2. I’m already getting e2 pay I just don’t know what I’m supposed to do
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So I got a huge paycheck this paycycle and I have no idea why. As an E2 I normally getting around $800 every two weeks, but it looks like they paid me $1800 this time.
I didn't sign on with any bonuses, my LAS didn't say anything about the extra money, and I'm not sure where to look to find out what's going on.
In the meantime I just set the money aside assuming Uncle Sam is going to want it back. Any advice?
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What are the odds that at the end of OSUT at fort benning I get offered airborne school. Is it dependent on your PT scores or is it just luck
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How do 35A intelligence officers specialize into fields of intelligence (SIGINT, HUMINT, whatever)? Do you specialize as soon as you are branched, or far later? Do you have any say in the matter, or is it a needs of the Army assignment?
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I have to take opat. I've looked online but I cannot find specific standards for each event. I see that 160lb is the cutoff for black but I've heard that you can load more weight onto the bar. But I cant find what the max numbers for each event are. I just see black, grey and gold without any more specific numbers. Can someone point me in the right direction to find that info?
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PCS to Leavenworth: I received my projected assignment, which is 15th MP at Ft Leavenworth. I’m a medic. Being with 15th MP I assume I’ll be working in the prison. So my questions are: for those who have been stationed there - what is the post and surrounding area like? And for those who have worked in the prison, especially medics, what was your experience like? I’ve spent some time in Kansas and don’t hate it, but I’m not thrilled about this assignment.
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I’m currently enlisted. I’m interested in green to gold. When is the recommended year to become an officer? As in is there specific years of service I should wait before becoming an officer to avoid being kicked out at 16 years for not making O4 or something like that.
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What the fuck is the lower leg pocket even used for?!?!?!?!
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Hello, I am currently late in the enlistment process and my husband has raised a question to me that neither I or my recruiter are able to give a satisfactory answer to. If my husband goes to a doctor on base, and they notice that he tests positive for THC, will he be punished? Presuming he is not currently high or carrying any on his person.
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I am applying for my masters after basic, OCS, and BOLC, and a concern of mine is whether I will be able to bring my GRE textbooks and other books to OCS. I am aware that I'll be in barracks but I heard that I'll have some weekends off. If yes, how will I get my textbooks from home to OCS if I fly there immediately? Thanks!
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For a lot of reasons, I've thought about enlisting. I'm in ROTC, but I'm not super high on the OML (about in the middle, maybe the bottom end of the top third). As such, I won't likely get the branch I want (MI). I want to work in the intel field, and that's a big part of why I want to branch MI or combat arms, but I'm very unlikely to get it. So I'm thinking about enlisting.
Between COVID turning college on its head, and the fact I suck at learning in an online environment (I do fine, but I'm not learning shit), I've thought about putting my degree on hold and enlisting as a 35-series MOS (I'd also try to either get an option 40 for a slot to RASP, or at least get airborne in the contract and hopefully get to do cool-guy support shit) - getting a TS/SCI, potentially a language/airborne/etc, and then finishing my degree would likely put me in a solid position to apply to one of the agencies after I get out, or to finish my degree and then try to commission (either OCS or return to ROTC).
Am I stupid to even consider this? I'm only 19, and can finish my degree in two years, so I could continue to make progress on it while in as well.
TLDR: Cadet probably won't get preferred branch, sucks at online school, considering putting degree on hold to enlist 35-series and then finishing my degree and applying to the agencies.
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Do IRR career counselors have a Quota like a normal recruiter?
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Could a warrant aviator be an ROTC SMP student?
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In a few years I am looking to go flight warrant, I am not aviation but really want to fly. How would I go about and getting LOR's and building that network?
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I'm Inactive Guard right now after 7 years. Just taking a year off to have a beard and shit.
I want to go AD.
Unfortunately I've been a shitbag with PT during my NG time. By the time i started to give a shit and want to be better, it was too late.
What are my options here as far as going AD and getting a fresh start? I want to actually do something and not be 80 years old explaining to my grandkids why I was an E-2.
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How similar are 46S (Public Affairs Specialist) and 25V (Combat Documentation Specialist) in terms of job duties and transferrable skills to the civilian sector? I'm more interested in multimedia production than writing press releases, which is why 25V is more appealing on the surface, but I want to be as flexible as possible in case one MOS isn't available but the other is. Would you consider the two to be relatively good substitutes for one another?
Also, I heard a while back that 25V is getting rolled into 46S. Does anyone know more details about that, as well as an approximate timeline? I'm guessing the army moves pretty slow, so is this something I should even be worrying about at this point?
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Can I take foundation, mascara, tweezers, contact lenses for graduation or will they just throw it all out?
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Question pertaining to females at BCT during COVID. Asking for a friend, since I went through a long time ago and want current info for her.
• ⁠Can she bring wet wipes (for personal hygiene), nail clippers, cough drops? I went with the bare minimum so I’m unsure on if you can bring these or if you have to just buy them at the PX. • ⁠With COVID, what does the packing list look like? Not sure if you get PT clothes or uniform in quarantine or if you have to bring extra clothes for this. • ⁠What is quarantine like? Will she be doing anything at all?
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I’m planning on enlisting in 6 months when I’m 17. I’m skinny fat and can’t really lift more then a 20 pound dumbbell and struggle to do more then 5 push ups at a time. Yes I know it’s extremely below average but I wanna get to the point where I can do rasp. I’m 6,0 and weigh 160-165 pounds. Any idea where to start to get to the standards of the end of OSUT pt test?
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my recruiter wants me to lose about 20 pounds before she tapes me again, but when i went into the office she told me to eat MORE. i barely eat as it is.. when i was in highschool i ate barely two meals a day and that's how my body is wired now. do you have any recommendations as to how i should lose weight? i really can't bring myself to eat more than i do now
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I am wondering whether the recruiting station I visited is following the guideline regarding COVID and what I should do to protect myself.
Today was my second time visiting that office, and I noticed nobody in the office was wearing the mask, unlike my first visit where my recruiter has at least asked if I want him to wear a mask (yes) the person (he didn't introduce himself, so idk) who helped me today (because the recruiter was gone today) didn't wear one, nor asked me if I wanted him to, and I really didn't want to make a scene so I just wore mine the whole time.
And then someone else in the office was like "I've been having this fevecold stuff, and i know it's cold cold from my wife" etc. Everyone in the office yelled covid but other than one person spraying lysol all over where he was sitting after he left, no further action was done...
Is this a common practice? I don't care how socially distanced people are, I don't feel safe being indoors with people outside of my family for a prolonged period of time without masks... Also, is there anything I can do about this?
Thanks!
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Are waivers being processed for juvenile records? At this point it was 12 years ago (I’m 28 now). 2 felonies and a misdemeanor for burglary, petit theft. No drugs or weapons or violence etc. Was expunged, did community service. I do have a bachelors degree.
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Is it possible to contact my Reserve unit during the week? As in non drill weekend?
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If you get an option 40 contract and have a non combat MOS, when you go through RASP and their pipeline will you still learn all the close quarters tactics and gun fighting to be an operator?
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As a 13F looking for a second duty station what do y’all recommend. Iv been at Fort Hood so anything is better then this. Soon to be SGT.
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What do y'all do to keep pace count? I'm normally like "42..43...huh weird lookin tree... FUCK!...37?..38..."
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Hey guys, so I'm set to get out soon, and I've decided to get a head start on cleaning my gear from CIF. Whats the best way to do it? Washing machines on base are closed down, so thats out of the question.
Also what do you guys use? Because as of right now i was going to use a combination of oxyclean, tide pods, and degreasing dish soap
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So the gym on post shut down the locker rooms due to covid and we can't bring bags into the building. I only have time to work out after work and going home to change sucks away my energy. I was thinking I'd just go to the gym in OCPs and swap out my shoes while lifting.
Thoughts?
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I'm debating if I should join the army in the coming years if I join I want to try and become a ranger how ever is there anything I should know befor joinong and how bad is the stuff you hear about like ptsd and all that also is worth joing I'm haveing trouble making up my mind also how would I go about becoming a ranger
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Say you wanted to be a door gunner or Apache gunner what MOS code/job title would that be exactly?
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How long is reception now that Covid is a thing?
I've used the search bar but all the threads and responses are dated. I've heard any where from a three week minimum to some companies being at 30th for 2 months before pick up
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Just got my orders and it seems I got Germany. As an 11C, does that mean I am going with the 2nd Cav? Also, how good is Germany to get as a duty station? Any tips for cool things to do around Germany would be awesome.
I plan to get into Air Assault school to get into the 101st, how should I go about that being a boot 11C?
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Hello all, Im studying for my ASVAB and Im planing to talk with a recruiter in about a month from now. Im interested in just one MOS and I heard the army is the only branch that let you reserve an a specific job, the MOS I want is 68p, I know is a rare MOS to get but if my ASVAB score qualifies me Im willing to wait 6 months or more for an opening, and I know a little bit about the DEP and the future soldier program but I don't know exactly how it works. It is possible to wait that long and enter to the FSP/DEP or the recruiter will make me choose another job??
Thanks in advance.
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Has anyone had good results from the SFAS workout on the goarmysof website? I have a mediocre ACFT (500 cusp). My main concern is not being able to keep up with it. I’ve never really done a personal fitness program as an individual. I want to attend SFAS after AIT among other things.
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I posted this on last week's WQT, but I posted it last night so it might not have gotten around. To those recruiters out there or anyone with knowledge on this, are the jobs listed on Prior Service Business Rules a good guide on the jobs available for someone looking to come back in? In other words, should I compare only those jobs and see which one I would like, assuming it is available at the time? Or is there a chance I can be given the option of a job not listed on the Prior service business rules?
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In general, for both active duty and reserve, how much time do you spend doing your actual MOS? Is it simply dependent on your particular MOS and/or unit? I imagine there are some MOS's, like 15Q Air Traffic Controller where you're almost always actually doing your job, but I can't find a great answer.
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What options are available for someone pursuing a foreign language studies degree with a concentration in Russian? Is officer or enlisted the better option? ROTC? What specific mos is available to utilize this specific skill set? Does anyone have any experience with this field of work? I want to join the Army because my husband is enlisting in the Army. I am starting school this semester but already have a little bit of a foundation in Russian. Thank you in advance I look forward to hearing your advice.
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Anyone know what the bonus looks like for 68W?
Edit: Florida
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I am an idiot and probably have screwed myself. There's no way around this, bottom line I failed to disclose an incident from almost 12 years ago to my recruiter, on my paperwork and at MEPS. I'm trying to go infantry but I haven't done my interview with my career counselor or what have you yet.
 
In 2009 I got stopped by a cop, my brother's bong was in the car and I got the business end for it. I wasn't taken to jail, I wasn't fingerprinted, I didn't do any community service, cop had me call my parents, they came and got me, and then later I met with the DA's assistant or someone and paid some kind of fee. I barely remember and haven't thought about this in years so details are sketch. I have no excuse but this is why I didn't disclose this, I've passed a lot of background checks for bank jobs, security licenses, firearm licenses etc and this never came up so I just never got reminded of it, I have no criminal record besides this one thing which I'm not even sure is on my record.
 
Now I passed medical and am waiting on some other paperwork. My recruiter said I should be able to go back to Meps in a few days, but this old shit just got brought up to me when I was talking to my brother (same one). " He's basically like "what'd they say about that thing when you were a kid." And I'm like "fuuuck." Is it too late? How do I fix this? Is it even possible or am I now officially fraudulently attempting to enlist?
 
Yeah, I'm a moron. No way around it. I just want to make this right if at all possible.
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AD ETSing (SOON™)considering reclassing into the USAR for a language-required MOS (35P / 35M). Looking for insight before I go to the reserve career counselor so I can be prepared.
1) What's the process for selecting a unit in the USAR? I've scoped out target languages of various units and know which units I would join. Do I just take all the UICs to the RCCC?
2) 35M is "language-required" but i've seen reddit posts within the last year, and literally talked to a 35M in-person yesterday, without a language. So whats the deal with that? I do not want to re-enlist without securing a spot at DLI.
3) 35M AIT. I am not a smooth talker; building rapport with people definitely isn't a strong suit. I'm confident I can learn a new language, and I'm nice at briefing, but making personal "small talk" isn't my thing. Would this be a problem to pass the course (or just exist as a 35M in general)?
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I’ll copy my text from a thread I made that ultimately got removed because I didn’t read the sub rules well enough:
For those who went into 25b or 17c, do you have any regrets?
As someone who is 24, been stuck at a dead-end factory job for several years, and wants to desperately get out of Michigan, I’m mostly looking for advice on if I would benefit more from going in for a 25b/17c (active) than from continuing to barely get by and try to go back to school.
Or if there are any benefits for going with the Reserves over Active Duty for the IT related jobs.
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Does anyone know what programs exist to aid Guard/Reserve guys who want to go to Law School?
Looking for one of my troops.
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Quick question
I scored really high on the Asvab, and I had a job picked out. However, I found out I was colorblind, and my job potential significantly diminished. Therefore, I was thinking of trying to enlist as a 31k Dog handler, but I’ve been told the chances of me getting this MOS are slim to none. I have a college degree, and I want to do something meaningful and purposeful that also allows me to make use of my intellect. Since I am limited to merely 10 MOS options, I have very little choice in what I can do. However, I’m asking because I know little to nothing about what military life entails, and I’d rather not join an MOS and end up despising it. The other options I was thinking of (if I can’t get military dog handler) are 13B, 13M and 13J. I’ve read that 13Ms go to Korea every 18 months, but would this even be worth it if it’s an egregious job? Also, is this true? Please let me know your guys’ experience. I greatly appreciate your opinions and time in responding to my qualms/questions.
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I'm planning on joining up at the end of this year, late DecembeEarly January. I've looked though a lot of options, listened to stories and experiences from other people who are on or have finished the path I'd like to take, and I think I have a decent understanding of the route I'd like to take. Really, all I'd like is for you guys to nitpick my plan and tell me if something is unfeasible. Thank you for your time. TL;DR at the bottom
As you can tell from my username, my ultimate goal is Special Forces, 18D in particular. The first idea I had was the 18X contract, but after listening to people who have been down that road, and considering that I'm not the best already, I believe that it would be better to stay away from 18X. Instead, I'm going in as 68W. I'd be coming in with my EMT-B, which my recruiter (I know, never 100% trust recruiters) said would allow me to essentially go in as an E-4 Specialist. I'm going to try and get an Option 4 (5?) contract, which would mean I'm guaranteed Airborne. After completing BC, AIT, and hopefully AB, I'd drop a packet for RASP. A few different people who are in 68W have said that RASP is always taking medics, so that's perfect for me. Either way, I'd go through RASP, try to get attached to a scouting/forward unit (for land nav experience). I'd work with them, and possibly go to SOCM. After that, get used to working as a medic, bulk up, and drop a packet for Selection. From there, I've gotta crush selection and Q-course, as well as the additional 18D training. At which point, I'd be the highest trained type of medic in the military.
Don't misunderstand, I know that everything I've listed is incredibly hard. At any point, I could fuck up some part of my body and be SoL, or could fail something and be asked not to come back. It's not a walk in the park, it's some of the hardest training in the world. I don't care, I'm going to either crush it or get crushed.
TL;DR: Enlist as E-4 due to EMT-B cert > join as 68W > Finish AIT > Go Airborne > Go RASP > Work/bulk up > SOCM > Work > Selection > Beat it or die trying.
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On my way to Fort Jackson for basic what’s the quarantine like?
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This Natty Guardsman is finally getting a cool-guy deployment to Djibouti (which is about as "cool-guy" as it gets for us slick sleeves). We're pretty far off from actually leaving for country, so higher command hasn't given us any guidance besides giving us a general time window to prepare for. For those of you who have gone to North Africa, what's life like for an infantryman nowadays? I'm not expecting any Black Hawk Down shit, but I'm really hoping it's not just day-in and day-out of trying to masturbate quick enough not to die of heat exhaustion in the porta-shitter.
Also, if you've got any tips on how to safely download TV shows and movies (for free) to an external hard drive, I'd love to hear 'em.
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Question for recruiters: When is the latest time I can take the OPAT before shipping out? Also what is “orientation”?
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4 weeks ago, I submitted the entirety of the hospital records surrounding my clavicle surgery to my recruiter, and was told that the prrocess of enlisting had to be put on hold until it was cleared. I have called my recruiter once a week since then, only for them to tell me "nothing has changed". What time frame should I be looking at for my surgery to be "cleared"? Thank you.
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With the iPhone 12 announced yesterday, what are the 5G speeds like on Humphreys? I heard Korea has a robust 5G network. Is it faster than wired internet? Is there a plan for unlimited 5G data at a reasonable price?
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Got told by a Sergeant Major that wearing a short sleeve PT shirt underneath a long sleeve PT shirt is not authorized. I have been in the Army for over a year and this is the first time I've heard this. Is this true?
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Anybody have experience with FLW during Jan-March/April? I've heard it isn't a bad time to go to basic, since PT is kept relatively short and they close the obstacle courses if it gets too bad.
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I am currently about to commission as a Military Intelligence Officer as a reservist in May. I realize this may be a dumb question but is there a master list of deployment slots that need to be filled by reserve augmentees anywhere?
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Question is it possible to join the army or marines with high cholesterol?
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I have two questions I’m just going to ask in the same comment.
  1. For those who went from reserve to active, what was it like? The whole process in doing so. I’m currently in the reserve and want to go active after my reserve contract
  2. If you have an intel mos and get stationed at ft Meade do you really have the opportunity to work with a 3-letter agency?
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Does anyone know if they are letting soldiers go home during the holiday exodus (19dec-2jan) during basic training like they usually do? Or no due to coronavirus?
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As a guardsman. I want to improve my asvab score and I will be near a active duty base for quite some time. Is it possible for me to go to the education center and take the test? And if so what are the steps. Thank you
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Does anyone know what time the 21-02 marketplace opens?
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With this time of the year what is the timeframe for a prior service reenlisting? I know I'll need a waiver for an RE-3. I just submitted all the paperwork needed to the recruiter. We're waiting on the redd from the Marines.
I know no one here can tell me the exact date. Just looking for personal experiences. Thank you for your time
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Is there a PT test in reception week?
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Greetingzz fellas’
Any recent MOS-T guys here that have any insight into life during AIT(any AIT). My report date is in 3 months. Transitioning into 25N as a E5, would it benefit myself in terms of follow on orders if I contacted branch for my assignment during the school house tenure or before? If any, since it’s AIT and they are always looking for volunteers for RASP or something along those lines. Would those options be available for MOS-T?
Thanks!!
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Whats your advice on physically preparing for army training? More specifically, physically preparing for medic army training.
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Is it possible to be colorblind and go airborne? And if so can you get it in your contract if your colorblind or do you have to be a PT stud and apply at AIT.
Thanks
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How does deployment work? Like after basic training what comes next? Do they ask you if you want to be deployed? Is it something you pick? Do you pick the location you want to be deployed to? Like do they give you a list or something and say “here, pick one”?
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What is a good guarantee to get stationed over seas?
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So I’m stationed in Alabama, and after a trip to go see some old friends and making my way back to base I was pulled over for speeding due to not paying attention. Not by much, don’t remember off the top of my head. But long story short I was given a warning citation with both the officer and the paper itself both saying warning with zero mention of court or a fine. Do I need to let my leadership know and does this negatively impact me? Kinda tripping balls here.
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Interested in joining but my recruiter says my desired MOS (25M) doesn't exist?
Is he lying to me? I see job postings for it in Google search and it's still listed on the Army website.
https://www.goarmy.com/careers-and-jobs/browse-career-and-job-categories/arts-and-media/multimedia-illustrator.html
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I have my orders for 116th MI BDG and my report date is March 13th, so does anyone have any idea what its like there? I'm curious because its my first unit.
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Intel officers - is there anything I can do to spend some of my LT time in INSCOM instead of just spending 3.5 years in S2? From my understanding it's pure luck and only about 1/4 of LTs get any time in INSCOM until after CCC?
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Hello! Just wanted to see if there was any prior service or currently serving officers that could answer some questions I had about the jobs on the officer side.
1.) What are the best jobs?
2.) Which ones have the best job prospects outside of the military?
3.) (Correct me if I'm wrong cause I don't now anything ,but) Does it really matter what job you choose sense their all managerial roles and probably won't give you the same skills you would learn as enlisted?
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Dumb question, but if I have my paperwork that says I qualified Grenade expert, is that kosher to wear on my ASU? I know it’s dumb, but I’d like to fit 3 badges if possible.
EDIT: Also, if I contract with ROTC as SMP, does that still count towards Awards/TIS? Ex. Driver’s badge
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how do I use tricare? I'm trying to get my eyes checked in one of the optometry clinics on base. Do I just use my CAC or do they need some sort of proof
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Safe place? Lol
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Enlisting soon as an E-4. How quickly can one promote to E-5?
As a civilian I have a tendency to move up the ranks quickly. I don’t mess around too much, learn quickly and do my job well, always.
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submitted by Army_Bot to army [link] [comments]


2020.10.20 05:27 Army_Bot Summary For: Weekly Question Thread (10/12/2020 to 10/18/2020)

Question, if you are a married individual and if you accidentally got pregnant on Christmas Leave- and be in the very start of your AIT what is the general process that happens?
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I dont smoke pot but have been wondering about something.
Senator Harris said that if elected VP Biden and her would decriminalize pot and expunge people's records. Do we think they would remove it from UCMJ if it was no longer a legal drug? Wouldnt they have to?
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Opinion question: Honestly, which would be the smarter move? Re-uping as a 35P and getting that crazy reenlistment bonus or commissioning/going warrant? Cus you no longer qualify for the bonus and flpb once you become an officer and no longer 35P correct?
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Howdy. I'm looking to join the NG for 11B. I've seen information surface lately about the 14 week OSUT program being extended to 22 weeks. What's the likelihood that I could receive the 22 week training and/or is there any way of knowing for certain?
Much appreciated!
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Hello,
26 year old, recent college graduate in Philosophy and Chemistry. I speak Spanish and a little Levantine Arabic, been a successful salesman for the past few years. 90th percentile on DLAB practice test, 99th on ASVAB. Generally unfulfilled at my current job path. Eagle scout, firefighter, emt etc. means I'm looking for something more active.
Looking towards a career in the intelligence community, and have been considering enlisting as a 37F. Cumulative/Major GPA of a 2.95/3.7 makes me think I wouldn't be competitive as a direct hire into CIA/DIA, or for OCS. Looking at other pathways to get experience and find a meaningful career, plus history of military service in my immediate family has me leaning towards that.
Recruiter was reserve CA, and keeps trying to push all the "doorkicker SF" stories, but I'm genuinely interested in what AD 37F roles and responsibilities are. I already read AR PAM 600-3 and would love to know what the life of an AD 37F is these days, since I understand there's both the tactical and strategic postings.
Looked through the wiki, and past postings already. I'd appreciate any and all advice, since at the end of the day I don't even know what I don't know, and I want to avoid any misconceptions.
Regards,
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Alright dumb question but I’m a boot. I’m “pv2” but apparently there’s some shit I gotta do electrically to officially be a pv2. I’m already getting e2 pay I just don’t know what I’m supposed to do
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So I got a huge paycheck this paycycle and I have no idea why. As an E2 I normally getting around $800 every two weeks, but it looks like they paid me $1800 this time.
I didn't sign on with any bonuses, my LAS didn't say anything about the extra money, and I'm not sure where to look to find out what's going on.
In the meantime I just set the money aside assuming Uncle Sam is going to want it back. Any advice?
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What are the odds that at the end of OSUT at fort benning I get offered airborne school. Is it dependent on your PT scores or is it just luck
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How do 35A intelligence officers specialize into fields of intelligence (SIGINT, HUMINT, whatever)? Do you specialize as soon as you are branched, or far later? Do you have any say in the matter, or is it a needs of the Army assignment?
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I have to take opat. I've looked online but I cannot find specific standards for each event. I see that 160lb is the cutoff for black but I've heard that you can load more weight onto the bar. But I cant find what the max numbers for each event are. I just see black, grey and gold without any more specific numbers. Can someone point me in the right direction to find that info?
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PCS to Leavenworth: I received my projected assignment, which is 15th MP at Ft Leavenworth. I’m a medic. Being with 15th MP I assume I’ll be working in the prison. So my questions are: for those who have been stationed there - what is the post and surrounding area like? And for those who have worked in the prison, especially medics, what was your experience like? I’ve spent some time in Kansas and don’t hate it, but I’m not thrilled about this assignment.
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I’m currently enlisted. I’m interested in green to gold. When is the recommended year to become an officer? As in is there specific years of service I should wait before becoming an officer to avoid being kicked out at 16 years for not making O4 or something like that.
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What the fuck is the lower leg pocket even used for?!?!?!?!
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Hello, I am currently late in the enlistment process and my husband has raised a question to me that neither I or my recruiter are able to give a satisfactory answer to. If my husband goes to a doctor on base, and they notice that he tests positive for THC, will he be punished? Presuming he is not currently high or carrying any on his person.
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I am applying for my masters after basic, OCS, and BOLC, and a concern of mine is whether I will be able to bring my GRE textbooks and other books to OCS. I am aware that I'll be in barracks but I heard that I'll have some weekends off. If yes, how will I get my textbooks from home to OCS if I fly there immediately? Thanks!
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For a lot of reasons, I've thought about enlisting. I'm in ROTC, but I'm not super high on the OML (about in the middle, maybe the bottom end of the top third). As such, I won't likely get the branch I want (MI). I want to work in the intel field, and that's a big part of why I want to branch MI or combat arms, but I'm very unlikely to get it. So I'm thinking about enlisting.
Between COVID turning college on its head, and the fact I suck at learning in an online environment (I do fine, but I'm not learning shit), I've thought about putting my degree on hold and enlisting as a 35-series MOS (I'd also try to either get an option 40 for a slot to RASP, or at least get airborne in the contract and hopefully get to do cool-guy support shit) - getting a TS/SCI, potentially a language/airborne/etc, and then finishing my degree would likely put me in a solid position to apply to one of the agencies after I get out, or to finish my degree and then try to commission (either OCS or return to ROTC).
Am I stupid to even consider this? I'm only 19, and can finish my degree in two years, so I could continue to make progress on it while in as well.
TLDR: Cadet probably won't get preferred branch, sucks at online school, considering putting degree on hold to enlist 35-series and then finishing my degree and applying to the agencies.
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Do IRR career counselors have a Quota like a normal recruiter?
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Could a warrant aviator be an ROTC SMP student?
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In a few years I am looking to go flight warrant, I am not aviation but really want to fly. How would I go about and getting LOR's and building that network?
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I'm Inactive Guard right now after 7 years. Just taking a year off to have a beard and shit.
I want to go AD.
Unfortunately I've been a shitbag with PT during my NG time. By the time i started to give a shit and want to be better, it was too late.
What are my options here as far as going AD and getting a fresh start? I want to actually do something and not be 80 years old explaining to my grandkids why I was an E-2.
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How similar are 46S (Public Affairs Specialist) and 25V (Combat Documentation Specialist) in terms of job duties and transferrable skills to the civilian sector? I'm more interested in multimedia production than writing press releases, which is why 25V is more appealing on the surface, but I want to be as flexible as possible in case one MOS isn't available but the other is. Would you consider the two to be relatively good substitutes for one another?
Also, I heard a while back that 25V is getting rolled into 46S. Does anyone know more details about that, as well as an approximate timeline? I'm guessing the army moves pretty slow, so is this something I should even be worrying about at this point?
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Can I take foundation, mascara, tweezers, contact lenses for graduation or will they just throw it all out?
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Question pertaining to females at BCT during COVID. Asking for a friend, since I went through a long time ago and want current info for her.
• ⁠Can she bring wet wipes (for personal hygiene), nail clippers, cough drops? I went with the bare minimum so I’m unsure on if you can bring these or if you have to just buy them at the PX. • ⁠With COVID, what does the packing list look like? Not sure if you get PT clothes or uniform in quarantine or if you have to bring extra clothes for this. • ⁠What is quarantine like? Will she be doing anything at all?
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I’m planning on enlisting in 6 months when I’m 17. I’m skinny fat and can’t really lift more then a 20 pound dumbbell and struggle to do more then 5 push ups at a time. Yes I know it’s extremely below average but I wanna get to the point where I can do rasp. I’m 6,0 and weigh 160-165 pounds. Any idea where to start to get to the standards of the end of OSUT pt test?
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my recruiter wants me to lose about 20 pounds before she tapes me again, but when i went into the office she told me to eat MORE. i barely eat as it is.. when i was in highschool i ate barely two meals a day and that's how my body is wired now. do you have any recommendations as to how i should lose weight? i really can't bring myself to eat more than i do now
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I am wondering whether the recruiting station I visited is following the guideline regarding COVID and what I should do to protect myself.
Today was my second time visiting that office, and I noticed nobody in the office was wearing the mask, unlike my first visit where my recruiter has at least asked if I want him to wear a mask (yes) the person (he didn't introduce himself, so idk) who helped me today (because the recruiter was gone today) didn't wear one, nor asked me if I wanted him to, and I really didn't want to make a scene so I just wore mine the whole time.
And then someone else in the office was like "I've been having this fevecold stuff, and i know it's cold cold from my wife" etc. Everyone in the office yelled covid but other than one person spraying lysol all over where he was sitting after he left, no further action was done...
Is this a common practice? I don't care how socially distanced people are, I don't feel safe being indoors with people outside of my family for a prolonged period of time without masks... Also, is there anything I can do about this?
Thanks!
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Are waivers being processed for juvenile records? At this point it was 12 years ago (I’m 28 now). 2 felonies and a misdemeanor for burglary, petit theft. No drugs or weapons or violence etc. Was expunged, did community service. I do have a bachelors degree.
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Is it possible to contact my Reserve unit during the week? As in non drill weekend?
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If you get an option 40 contract and have a non combat MOS, when you go through RASP and their pipeline will you still learn all the close quarters tactics and gun fighting to be an operator?
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As a 13F looking for a second duty station what do y’all recommend. Iv been at Fort Hood so anything is better then this. Soon to be SGT.
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What do y'all do to keep pace count? I'm normally like "42..43...huh weird lookin tree... FUCK!...37?..38..."
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Hey guys, so I'm set to get out soon, and I've decided to get a head start on cleaning my gear from CIF. Whats the best way to do it? Washing machines on base are closed down, so thats out of the question.
Also what do you guys use? Because as of right now i was going to use a combination of oxyclean, tide pods, and degreasing dish soap
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So the gym on post shut down the locker rooms due to covid and we can't bring bags into the building. I only have time to work out after work and going home to change sucks away my energy. I was thinking I'd just go to the gym in OCPs and swap out my shoes while lifting.
Thoughts?
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I'm debating if I should join the army in the coming years if I join I want to try and become a ranger how ever is there anything I should know befor joinong and how bad is the stuff you hear about like ptsd and all that also is worth joing I'm haveing trouble making up my mind also how would I go about becoming a ranger
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Say you wanted to be a door gunner or Apache gunner what MOS code/job title would that be exactly?
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How long is reception now that Covid is a thing?
I've used the search bar but all the threads and responses are dated. I've heard any where from a three week minimum to some companies being at 30th for 2 months before pick up
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Just got my orders and it seems I got Germany. As an 11C, does that mean I am going with the 2nd Cav? Also, how good is Germany to get as a duty station? Any tips for cool things to do around Germany would be awesome.
I plan to get into Air Assault school to get into the 101st, how should I go about that being a boot 11C?
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Hello all, Im studying for my ASVAB and Im planing to talk with a recruiter in about a month from now. Im interested in just one MOS and I heard the army is the only branch that let you reserve an a specific job, the MOS I want is 68p, I know is a rare MOS to get but if my ASVAB score qualifies me Im willing to wait 6 months or more for an opening, and I know a little bit about the DEP and the future soldier program but I don't know exactly how it works. It is possible to wait that long and enter to the FSP/DEP or the recruiter will make me choose another job??
Thanks in advance.
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Has anyone had good results from the SFAS workout on the goarmysof website? I have a mediocre ACFT (500 cusp). My main concern is not being able to keep up with it. I’ve never really done a personal fitness program as an individual. I want to attend SFAS after AIT among other things.
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I posted this on last week's WQT, but I posted it last night so it might not have gotten around. To those recruiters out there or anyone with knowledge on this, are the jobs listed on Prior Service Business Rules a good guide on the jobs available for someone looking to come back in? In other words, should I compare only those jobs and see which one I would like, assuming it is available at the time? Or is there a chance I can be given the option of a job not listed on the Prior service business rules?
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In general, for both active duty and reserve, how much time do you spend doing your actual MOS? Is it simply dependent on your particular MOS and/or unit? I imagine there are some MOS's, like 15Q Air Traffic Controller where you're almost always actually doing your job, but I can't find a great answer.
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What options are available for someone pursuing a foreign language studies degree with a concentration in Russian? Is officer or enlisted the better option? ROTC? What specific mos is available to utilize this specific skill set? Does anyone have any experience with this field of work? I want to join the Army because my husband is enlisting in the Army. I am starting school this semester but already have a little bit of a foundation in Russian. Thank you in advance I look forward to hearing your advice.
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Anyone know what the bonus looks like for 68W?
Edit: Florida
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I am an idiot and probably have screwed myself. There's no way around this, bottom line I failed to disclose an incident from almost 12 years ago to my recruiter, on my paperwork and at MEPS. I'm trying to go infantry but I haven't done my interview with my career counselor or what have you yet.
 
In 2009 I got stopped by a cop, my brother's bong was in the car and I got the business end for it. I wasn't taken to jail, I wasn't fingerprinted, I didn't do any community service, cop had me call my parents, they came and got me, and then later I met with the DA's assistant or someone and paid some kind of fee. I barely remember and haven't thought about this in years so details are sketch. I have no excuse but this is why I didn't disclose this, I've passed a lot of background checks for bank jobs, security licenses, firearm licenses etc and this never came up so I just never got reminded of it, I have no criminal record besides this one thing which I'm not even sure is on my record.
 
Now I passed medical and am waiting on some other paperwork. My recruiter said I should be able to go back to Meps in a few days, but this old shit just got brought up to me when I was talking to my brother (same one). " He's basically like "what'd they say about that thing when you were a kid." And I'm like "fuuuck." Is it too late? How do I fix this? Is it even possible or am I now officially fraudulently attempting to enlist?
 
Yeah, I'm a moron. No way around it. I just want to make this right if at all possible.
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AD ETSing (SOON™)considering reclassing into the USAR for a language-required MOS (35P / 35M). Looking for insight before I go to the reserve career counselor so I can be prepared.
1) What's the process for selecting a unit in the USAR? I've scoped out target languages of various units and know which units I would join. Do I just take all the UICs to the RCCC?
2) 35M is "language-required" but i've seen reddit posts within the last year, and literally talked to a 35M in-person yesterday, without a language. So whats the deal with that? I do not want to re-enlist without securing a spot at DLI.
3) 35M AIT. I am not a smooth talker; building rapport with people definitely isn't a strong suit. I'm confident I can learn a new language, and I'm nice at briefing, but making personal "small talk" isn't my thing. Would this be a problem to pass the course (or just exist as a 35M in general)?
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I’ll copy my text from a thread I made that ultimately got removed because I didn’t read the sub rules well enough:
For those who went into 25b or 17c, do you have any regrets?
As someone who is 24, been stuck at a dead-end factory job for several years, and wants to desperately get out of Michigan, I’m mostly looking for advice on if I would benefit more from going in for a 25b/17c (active) than from continuing to barely get by and try to go back to school.
Or if there are any benefits for going with the Reserves over Active Duty for the IT related jobs.
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Does anyone know what programs exist to aid Guard/Reserve guys who want to go to Law School?
Looking for one of my troops.
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Quick question
I scored really high on the Asvab, and I had a job picked out. However, I found out I was colorblind, and my job potential significantly diminished. Therefore, I was thinking of trying to enlist as a 31k Dog handler, but I’ve been told the chances of me getting this MOS are slim to none. I have a college degree, and I want to do something meaningful and purposeful that also allows me to make use of my intellect. Since I am limited to merely 10 MOS options, I have very little choice in what I can do. However, I’m asking because I know little to nothing about what military life entails, and I’d rather not join an MOS and end up despising it. The other options I was thinking of (if I can’t get military dog handler) are 13B, 13M and 13J. I’ve read that 13Ms go to Korea every 18 months, but would this even be worth it if it’s an egregious job? Also, is this true? Please let me know your guys’ experience. I greatly appreciate your opinions and time in responding to my qualms/questions.
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I'm planning on joining up at the end of this year, late DecembeEarly January. I've looked though a lot of options, listened to stories and experiences from other people who are on or have finished the path I'd like to take, and I think I have a decent understanding of the route I'd like to take. Really, all I'd like is for you guys to nitpick my plan and tell me if something is unfeasible. Thank you for your time. TL;DR at the bottom
As you can tell from my username, my ultimate goal is Special Forces, 18D in particular. The first idea I had was the 18X contract, but after listening to people who have been down that road, and considering that I'm not the best already, I believe that it would be better to stay away from 18X. Instead, I'm going in as 68W. I'd be coming in with my EMT-B, which my recruiter (I know, never 100% trust recruiters) said would allow me to essentially go in as an E-4 Specialist. I'm going to try and get an Option 4 (5?) contract, which would mean I'm guaranteed Airborne. After completing BC, AIT, and hopefully AB, I'd drop a packet for RASP. A few different people who are in 68W have said that RASP is always taking medics, so that's perfect for me. Either way, I'd go through RASP, try to get attached to a scouting/forward unit (for land nav experience). I'd work with them, and possibly go to SOCM. After that, get used to working as a medic, bulk up, and drop a packet for Selection. From there, I've gotta crush selection and Q-course, as well as the additional 18D training. At which point, I'd be the highest trained type of medic in the military.
Don't misunderstand, I know that everything I've listed is incredibly hard. At any point, I could fuck up some part of my body and be SoL, or could fail something and be asked not to come back. It's not a walk in the park, it's some of the hardest training in the world. I don't care, I'm going to either crush it or get crushed.
TL;DR: Enlist as E-4 due to EMT-B cert > join as 68W > Finish AIT > Go Airborne > Go RASP > Work/bulk up > SOCM > Work > Selection > Beat it or die trying.
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On my way to Fort Jackson for basic what’s the quarantine like?
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This Natty Guardsman is finally getting a cool-guy deployment to Djibouti (which is about as "cool-guy" as it gets for us slick sleeves). We're pretty far off from actually leaving for country, so higher command hasn't given us any guidance besides giving us a general time window to prepare for. For those of you who have gone to North Africa, what's life like for an infantryman nowadays? I'm not expecting any Black Hawk Down shit, but I'm really hoping it's not just day-in and day-out of trying to masturbate quick enough not to die of heat exhaustion in the porta-shitter.
Also, if you've got any tips on how to safely download TV shows and movies (for free) to an external hard drive, I'd love to hear 'em.
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Question for recruiters: When is the latest time I can take the OPAT before shipping out? Also what is “orientation”?
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4 weeks ago, I submitted the entirety of the hospital records surrounding my clavicle surgery to my recruiter, and was told that the prrocess of enlisting had to be put on hold until it was cleared. I have called my recruiter once a week since then, only for them to tell me "nothing has changed". What time frame should I be looking at for my surgery to be "cleared"? Thank you.
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With the iPhone 12 announced yesterday, what are the 5G speeds like on Humphreys? I heard Korea has a robust 5G network. Is it faster than wired internet? Is there a plan for unlimited 5G data at a reasonable price?
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Got told by a Sergeant Major that wearing a short sleeve PT shirt underneath a long sleeve PT shirt is not authorized. I have been in the Army for over a year and this is the first time I've heard this. Is this true?
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Anybody have experience with FLW during Jan-March/April? I've heard it isn't a bad time to go to basic, since PT is kept relatively short and they close the obstacle courses if it gets too bad.
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I am currently about to commission as a Military Intelligence Officer as a reservist in May. I realize this may be a dumb question but is there a master list of deployment slots that need to be filled by reserve augmentees anywhere?
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Question is it possible to join the army or marines with high cholesterol?
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I have two questions I’m just going to ask in the same comment.
  1. For those who went from reserve to active, what was it like? The whole process in doing so. I’m currently in the reserve and want to go active after my reserve contract
  2. If you have an intel mos and get stationed at ft Meade do you really have the opportunity to work with a 3-letter agency?
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Does anyone know if they are letting soldiers go home during the holiday exodus (19dec-2jan) during basic training like they usually do? Or no due to coronavirus?
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As a guardsman. I want to improve my asvab score and I will be near a active duty base for quite some time. Is it possible for me to go to the education center and take the test? And if so what are the steps. Thank you
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Does anyone know what time the 21-02 marketplace opens?
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With this time of the year what is the timeframe for a prior service reenlisting? I know I'll need a waiver for an RE-3. I just submitted all the paperwork needed to the recruiter. We're waiting on the redd from the Marines.
I know no one here can tell me the exact date. Just looking for personal experiences. Thank you for your time
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Is there a PT test in reception week?
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Greetingzz fellas’
Any recent MOS-T guys here that have any insight into life during AIT(any AIT). My report date is in 3 months. Transitioning into 25N as a E5, would it benefit myself in terms of follow on orders if I contacted branch for my assignment during the school house tenure or before? If any, since it’s AIT and they are always looking for volunteers for RASP or something along those lines. Would those options be available for MOS-T?
Thanks!!
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Whats your advice on physically preparing for army training? More specifically, physically preparing for medic army training.
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Is it possible to be colorblind and go airborne? And if so can you get it in your contract if your colorblind or do you have to be a PT stud and apply at AIT.
Thanks
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How does deployment work? Like after basic training what comes next? Do they ask you if you want to be deployed? Is it something you pick? Do you pick the location you want to be deployed to? Like do they give you a list or something and say “here, pick one”?
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What is a good guarantee to get stationed over seas?
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So I’m stationed in Alabama, and after a trip to go see some old friends and making my way back to base I was pulled over for speeding due to not paying attention. Not by much, don’t remember off the top of my head. But long story short I was given a warning citation with both the officer and the paper itself both saying warning with zero mention of court or a fine. Do I need to let my leadership know and does this negatively impact me? Kinda tripping balls here.
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Interested in joining but my recruiter says my desired MOS (25M) doesn't exist?
Is he lying to me? I see job postings for it in Google search and it's still listed on the Army website.
https://www.goarmy.com/careers-and-jobs/browse-career-and-job-categories/arts-and-media/multimedia-illustrator.html
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I have my orders for 116th MI BDG and my report date is March 13th, so does anyone have any idea what its like there? I'm curious because its my first unit.
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Intel officers - is there anything I can do to spend some of my LT time in INSCOM instead of just spending 3.5 years in S2? From my understanding it's pure luck and only about 1/4 of LTs get any time in INSCOM until after CCC?
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Hello! Just wanted to see if there was any prior service or currently serving officers that could answer some questions I had about the jobs on the officer side.
1.) What are the best jobs?
2.) Which ones have the best job prospects outside of the military?
3.) (Correct me if I'm wrong cause I don't now anything ,but) Does it really matter what job you choose sense their all managerial roles and probably won't give you the same skills you would learn as enlisted?
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Dumb question, but if I have my paperwork that says I qualified Grenade expert, is that kosher to wear on my ASU? I know it’s dumb, but I’d like to fit 3 badges if possible.
EDIT: Also, if I contract with ROTC as SMP, does that still count towards Awards/TIS? Ex. Driver’s badge
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how do I use tricare? I'm trying to get my eyes checked in one of the optometry clinics on base. Do I just use my CAC or do they need some sort of proof
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Safe place? Lol
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Enlisting soon as an E-4. How quickly can one promote to E-5?
As a civilian I have a tendency to move up the ranks quickly. I don’t mess around too much, learn quickly and do my job well, always.
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submitted by Army_Bot to ArmyWQT [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 10:16 CrofterNo2 "The Beast With the Breath of Hell": Giant Ground Sloths in the Amazon

Six families of prehistoric ground sloths are now recognised: Megatheriidae, Mylodontidae, Nothrotheriidae, Megalonychidae, Scelidotheriidae, and the Carribean Megalocnidae. First discovered at the end of the 18th Century, much is known of the appearance and lifestyle of many species. Generally they were very robust, vaguely bear-like animals with wide tails, strong claws, and the ability to walk quadrupedally and bipedally. But they were highly adaptable: by the end of the Pleistocene, several dozen species existed in South America, including the largest ever, and their Pleistocene range stretched from Tierra del Fuego to Alaska. Throughout the ages, some browsed, some grazed, some swam in coastal seas or freshwater, some burrowed, and some lived in trees or on steep cliffs. Some families spread to North America before the Great American Interchange, and when animals from the north invaded, they were unaffected—until one last animal moved south some ~12,000 years ago.
Given their adaptability, is it possible that at least one species may have survived into modern times? Since their discovery, many people have believed so. But where's the best place to look for them? For most of the 20th Century, the answer to that was Patagonia, thanks to sightings reported mainly by the Argentine palaeontologist Florentino Ameghino. But in On the Track of Unknown Animals (1955), Bernard Heuvelmans suggested that the tropical forests of the Amazon and the Andes, not Patagonia, were the place. Noting that the ground sloths were likely wiped out (?) by overhunting, he asked...
[...] what has happened to them in their impenetrable retreat in the vast Amazonian selva and the boscosa of the Andes, through which they passed in the course of ages? It is hard to see what, in the peace of these forests rarely inhabited by man, could have led to their extinction. Only human traps were able to put an end to these armoured brutes against which beasts of prey were powerless. Might they not still live in this 'green hell' and find it a heaven of peace?
But Heuvelmans attributed most stories of hairy humanoids in the Amazon to primates, and it would be 38 years before his question was seriously considered in print.
Mapinguari, stinking beast of the Amazon
American ornithologist David Oren arrived in the Brazilian Amazon in 1977, and immediately began to hear stories of various forest myths. One of the most common of these was the mapinguari, which had been covered by Heuvelmans and by Ivan T. Sanderson, and which they had believed to be a giant primate. To Oren the mapinguari initially appeared to be just another part of the folklore of the rainforest: for every person who claimed to have seen it, four mocked the idea that it could be real, as did the alleged eyewitnesses prior to their own experiences.
The mapinguari was a creature of the seringueiros, or rubber-tappers, but even during the silver age of the rubber plantation it was not taken seriously by others. The modern folkloric-pop cultural version is a huge cyclops with a mouth in its stomach, and is not too different to the very earliest descriptions (the earliest use of the term I can find dates to 1896, where it's called an evil Tupi spirit). But a 1913 newspaper article on the subject also mentions the macaco de borracha, or rubber monkey of Acre, an animal covered in long and tangled hair which repels bullets. The macaco de borracha was the size of a Newfoundland dog when on all fours, but was taller than a man when standing upright on its hind feet. And in 1960, a cabloco took issue with a newspaper repeating the traditional description of a giant man, claiming that the mapinguari was really a sort of huge and horrifying horse-like animal. He said that such an animal had recently been seen by men working on "the road which will link Acre to Brasilia". Nevertheless, when cattle were found dead with their tongues missing, the mapinguari was often blamed; this and a 1930 sighting of a monkey-like mapinguari on the Urubu River, reported in On the Track of Unknown Animals, cemented the mapinguari as the Brazilian Bigfoot.
By the time of David Oren's arrival, rubber had given way to gold, and many of the first mapinguari reports he heard came from gold prospectors and mine employees. The fact that there were reliable modern accounts of such an animal was first brought to his notice by historian David Gueiros Vieira, who had collected several sightings from gold miners while he was in charge of Serra Pelada in Pará. During his discussions with Vieira in 1988, Oren heard a first-hand mapinguari sighting from northern Tocantins which, he has often said in interviews, made a light go off in his head: "this creature could only be a ground sloth!" He has subsequently collected around 100 first-hand sightings which he believes describe the same animal (even the published sightings are too numerous to detail here), from the states of Amazonas, Acre, Mato Grosso, Pará, Amapá, Rondônia, and Tocantins, and as of 2001, he had also interviewed seven hunters who claimed to have killed specimens.
Based on the hunters' descriptions, the mapinguari is a very heavy, powerfully-built animal, up to two metres (6'6'') tall when standing bipedally, and weighing enough to break the roots of trees with its steps. It is covered in long and coarse fur which ranges in colour from reddish to brownish to blackish, sometimes said to be longer, mane-like, on the neck and back; and has a muzzle similar to that of a horse or a burro, though shorter, which is armed with four peg-shaped canine teeth. Its formidable claws are shaped like those of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), but are the size of those of the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), that is, between 7'' and 8''. It is said to be nocturnal and crepuscular (i.e. active at night and twilight), and feeds on vegetation including bacaba palms (Oenocarpus bacaba), which it twists to the ground and tears apart in order to feed on the palm heart and berry-like fruits.
Two distinct types of vocalisations were described to Oren. The first is a low call reminiscent of thunder, while the other is a very loud and impressive, higher-pitched cry "just like a human shouting," but with a growl at the end. When shot, it produces an "extraordinarily loud, human-like scream." A very strong and unpleasant smell is frequently described, compared to a mixture of faeces and rotting flesh; garlic vine (Mansoa alliacea) and a foetid peccary; or simply described as "just the worst odor they ever smelled." The smell leaves people light-headed and nauseous, or even renders them unconscious. A foul odour is a common feature of mythical South American monsters, but in this case it is clearly a genuine characteristic of the animal.
Another folkloric trait which also occurs in sightings is the mapinguari's nigh-invulnerability to bullets and arrows, unless hit in the navel, the eye(s), the mouth, or sometimes elsewhere on the head. Hunters who claim to have shot specimens say they used special solid lead shotgun slugs fired at the head; a special shot used for hunting tapirs fired at the navel from a .16 calibre shotgun; and all the bullets of a .38 caliber revolver, emptied into the chest.
According to Oren, two kinds of tracks are attributed to the mapinguari. The first, and most common, are as "round as a pestle" (like those attributed to the folkloric pé de garrafa) and are found in the ground around vegetation and faeces even during the dry season, when the earth is baked hard. The second tracks are "like people's, but backwards," with only four toes. The mapinguari's faeces were always described to Oren as "just like horses," and are said to contain poorly-broken down, recognisable plant matter such as leaves and stems. Of all the Amazonian mammals, only the South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) produces similarly horse-like faeces, but this animal usually defecates in water, whereas supposed mapinguari dung is found on land.
One important sighting was made by a gold prospector who told Oren that a reddish "giant monkey" had charged at him in the forest, and that he only had time to shoot the animal in the face before fainting. When Oren investigated the area, he found a pool of blood and "round paw-prints with marks of clawed toes pointing inwards". This was no monkey, giant or otherwise, but the fact that this clawed animal, whatever it is, has been called a monkey should be kept in mind.
Given the amount of sightings, and killings, on record, why has no proof of the mapinguari's existence come to hand? Besides its rarity, its jungle habitat, and the terror in which it is held, the problems of preserving bits of a mapinguari are best illustrated by the following incident: a seringueiro hunting in the woods, startled by a human-like shouting behind him, swung 'round to see an angry-looking, hulking animal standing on its hind legs. Though he shot and killed it, the smell permeating the area was so stupefying that the hunter wandered aimlessly for some hours before coming to. Then he cut off the animal's front paw to show his brother, but this also smelled so badly that he threw it away into the forest. A more conservation-friendly spin on this occurred in the '80s, when some Kanamarí Indians living in the Rio Juruá valley allegedly raised two baby mapinguaris whose mother had been scared off or killed by hunters. The Kanamarí fed them on bananas and milk before they progressed to foliage, but after a couple of years the smell became too much to bear, and the Kanamarí released them. The story is not unique—three hunters claimed to have captured living mapinguaris, but all three animals escaped because their captors were unable to bear the stench.
Oren himself led several expeditions in search of the mapinguari, but all the evidence he collected was inconclusive, or identified as something else. Four times on two separate occasions, in the afternoon and early night, Oren heard (and recorded, according to some sources) a mapinguari-like call, described by himself as being extremely strong and of steady pitch, lasting for up to forty-five seconds, and resembling "jets flying over low." He also made a cast, about an 1'' deep, which shows a knuckle-walking track with three digits; and photographed "claw marks on a tree, eight of them about a foot long and an inch deep," which may have been made by a mapinguari. However, results of testing of alleged mapinguari dung were inconclusive, and in one case some fecal matter collected by Oren was identified as giant anteater or tapir dung. Conversely, and dubiously, geneticist John Lewis claimed to have extracted ground sloth DNA from alleged mapinguari faeces which he stepped in during a 2001 expedition to Brazil.
Although Oren writes that the well-known single eye and stomach-mouth appear predominately in legend and popular culture, not usually in first-hand sightings, unfortunately the latest recorded sighting, a dubious one from 2014, does indeed describe a cyclopean monster. The latest known incident of any kind came in 2016, when residents of Gleba Vila Amazônia claimed to have discovered large mapinguari footprints near the road from Vila Amazônia to Cabeceira do Inferno, on the banks of Lake Zé Açú. Other residents believed the tracks were made by a giant monkey.
Another beast which Oren synonymises with the mapinguari is the juma, a 10' tall hairy humanoid seen near Valéria (where a mapinguari was reported in 1981) in the '90s. According to Oren, almost every Amazonian Indian language has a name for what we call the mapinguari, but only a few of these names have filtered through. These regional mapinguaris of Rondônia, the Andes, and the northern Amazon will be discussed in the following sections.
The Rondônian mapinguari
More gold prospectors were said to have killed a mapinguari in Rondônia, about two days by foot from Porto Velho. This must have been very close to the Karitiana reservation, which is centred on the village of Kyõwã. The Karitiana version of the mapinguari is called the kida harara or kida so'emo, but is often synonymised with the mapinguari, including by most of the Karitiana. They believe that it lives southwest of Kyõwã, in the Floresta Nacional do Bom Futuro, where it inhabits the "Cave of the Mapinguari," which is also home to enormous vampire bats. Interestingly, one of their alternate names for the animal is o'i ty, meaning "giant sloth". But is this term their own invention, or was it introduced by visiting cryptozoologists? After all, the kida harara has been investigated by cryptozoologists for some time. The first appears to have been Hilton Pereira da Silva, whose research was televised in a '90s episode of Into the Unknown. While he found nothing in the Cave of the Mapinguari, he was told that a hunter named Valdemiro had seen the animal by the cave. Valdemiro had been startled by a "terrifying cry" when the animal emerged, balancing on the sides of its feet and holding its claws inwards.
The kida harara's description may have been 'polluted' by descriptions from people who don't claim to have seen it, but, generally, it is said to be a large creature, with a big head just like a sloth's, but with long teeth; huge arms armed with hook-shaped claws; big ugly feet; and red or black hair all over except (sometimes) for the chest and face, which are covered in smooth skin. All accounts describe it as noxious-smelling and extremely noisy and destructive, screaming and groaning, smashing trees and leaving tractor-like trails, and its bulletproof hide is attested by several first-hand experiences. Interestingly, its invulnerability is attributed to lots of little pebbles beneath its skin, a very appropriate description of a mylodontid's osteoderms. Nocturnal, it is said to sleep standing upright, and shuffles its feet as it walks through the woods, making the earth shake. It tears apart babassu palms, which it likes to eat, and also fells other trees... but it isn't a harmless herbivore, since it's reputed to "bear-hug" people to death like an anteater, or even to tear off their arms and legs.
As with the mapinguari itself, there are too many sightings to detail, although as of 2006 the kida harara was frequently heard in the forest, during the night. Sometimes it was briefly mistaken for a giant anteater, sometimes it was seen in streams, and on one occasion it caused the evacuation of Kyõwã when it wandered into the village. Several other sightings are recounted in Destination Truth ("Sloth Monster") and Beast Man ("Nightmare of the Amazon"). Both of these investigations also recorded ambiguous evidence — Josh Gates recorded a very quiet, but apparently unidentifiable call, and heard a palm being torn down nearby; while Pat Spain believed he heard a response to his blasted mapinguari call, which may or may not have been picked up by the microphones.
But the most famous sighting of the kida harara was the one reported by Geovaldo, a Karitiana hunter who claimed to have been approached and knocked out while stalking peccaries, sometime around 2004. His story was confirmed by his father Lucas, who said that when his son took him back to the site of the encounter, he saw a pathway where the creature had departed through the bush, "as if a boulder had rolled through and knocked down all the trees and vines". However, perhaps due to either translation issues or gradual exaggeration, different versions of this story have been given. Interviewed for Destination Truth, Geovaldo said that he shot at the animal, and ran off when it charged at him. On Beast Man, he claimed to have fired at it multiple times before loading his gun with a lead slug, and firing at the animals face, making it stop and scream in pain, and allowing Geovaldo to escape.
Beast Man's Pat Spain interviews Geovaldo using an "animal identity parade" of photographs, and included among native and non-native animals is a photograph of Rusty the Megalonyx. Geovaldo unhesitatingly nods and identifies it as very like what he had seen, stating that "it was kind of like that. I think that was the animal. I really think that looks like it. Its arms were just like that." One difference he notes is that the claws on what he saw were similar, but even larger—other than that, it has the same body, the same arms, and the same face. It's a powerful scene, and the moment that sparked my personal interest in the mapinguari. But of course, Geovaldo's reaction doesn't mean the kida harara really was a Megalonyx, or even a ground sloth at all, only that it looked like that particular concept of Megalonyx. The really useful thing is knowing what Geovaldo definitely didn't see—it wasn't an anteater, elephant, rhinoceros, spectacled bear (no reaction from Geovaldo), or gorilla ("some sort of monkey?"). Regardless of whether or not you believe his story, spectacled bears and apes are alien to this Karitiana hunter.
Sloths in the Andes
In Acre, near the Peruvian border, Oren was told that the mapinguari is migratory, descending from the Andean foothills around February. It's sometimes thought that it moves into the Andes to avoid the flooding of the rainy season. Whatever the case, some of the best and earliest-published reports of ground sloths come from the forested eastern slopes of the Andes.
While doing field work in Macas, Ecuador, in the 1990s, cryptozoologist Angel Morant Forés was told by local Shuar people of a bear-like animal, the ujea, which reminded him of a ground sloth, but he couldn't find anyone who claimed to have seen a ujea for themselves. This creature inhabits an obscure border region between cryptozoology and folklore—sometimes considered a demon, sometimes a long-vanished monster, it has been described as a huge and man-eating ape-like beast. But the most interesting description was given by a Shuar to this traveller, who also received a drawing of the ujea.
The ujea is a weird mix between a bear and a human. Apparently the Shuar used to hunt these. As you can see in the picture the stench was enough to knock a grown man unconscious. These aren't dangerous to humans as they eat the nectar of flowers.
The foul smell, an obvious point of similarity with the mapinguari, is not unique to the ujea among Shuar monsters. But the drawing does depict it as rather sloth-like, with shaggy red hair on its head and back, a long tongue, and strongly hooked claws. However, note that it's said that "the Shuar used to hunt these"—used to. Why stop, unless the animal has vanished?
On the other hand, was the ujea the same animal that a huaquero from Quito claimed to have seen in the subtropical cloud forests of the Ecuadorean Andes in the 1980s? According to the account he gave to cryptozoologist J. Richard Greenwell, he saw a large and unfamiliar quadruped, about 10' long, covered in shaggy hair, and sporting a large horse's snout, emerge from a forest cave. As it was coming towards him, the terrified huaquero prayed to the Virgin for help, but the animal simply reared up onto its hind legs and began to browse on the surrounding vegetation. Greenwell believed the man's story, judging him capable of properly evaluating an animal's size and appearance from some distance. In fact, his life habitually depended on this skill—his other job was that of a bullfighter!
A lot of people will be familiar with the idea of mapinguaris in Peru because of Forrest Galante's claims about a "Mapinguari Valley," but the only known aboriginal Peruvian name for the animal is the Machiguenga segamai of the Vilcabamba Mountains. This is described as a cow-sized animal which can walk both quarupedally and bipedally, with dark matted fur (specifically said to resemble the fibers surrounding the leaf stems of an Oenocarpus bataua palm) and a snout similar to a giant anteater's. It's said to live in caves in the remote cloud and foothill forests, where it feeds on Cyclanthaceae plants and palm piths. The Machiguenga are terrified of it due to its reputedly aggressive behaviour, and it has a number of characteristics in common with the mapinguari: it is said to be impervious to bullets, has a terrible roar, and supposedly generates an odour or field which stupefies or knocks out anyone who comes close to it. Interviewed on Beast Man, anthropologist Glenn Shepard Jr. added that that the Machiguenga reported seeing large claw marks, which they believed had been made by the segamai, on trees.
A sighting made from a distance was reported to have occurred in around 1976, and as of 2001, the Machiguenga insisted that the segamai still lived in certain areas of the forest, where they saw it as just another wild animal. Shepard suggested to them that it might be a bear: the Machiguenga, who knew spectacled bears well, "expressed great surprise and affirmed that the two animals are completely different". One of the tribe matter-of-factly told him that he had seen a segamai at Lima's Natural History Museum when he was a student, and when Shepard checked, he discovered that the museum had a diorama featuring a model of a giant ground sloth. But there's a disconcerting sequel to this story: the student had never seen the segamai himself, and had previously assumed it to be mythical. So despite the belief that the segamai still lived in the forest, the younger generations of 2001 did not believe in it, showing that it had become very rare... or worse.
Also from Peru, we have a very dramatic story collected by Hermes Mendoza Del Aguila, which tells of a very mapinguari-like "giant sloth" termed "engendro verde" being killed by soldiers. The story is presumably only a folk tale, but it demonstrates that the mapinguari archetype is familiar in the Peruvian Amazon.
Luis Jorge Salinas has collected a 1985 sighting from Bolivia, near Iñapari on the Bolivia-Brazil-Peru border, and Bolivia is in fact home to its own supposed version of the mapinguari: the bipedal jucucu, a name immediately reminiscent of jukumari, ucumari, and ukuku, terms applied to the spectacled bear in Bolivia and Peru. But is this because the jucucu is a bear, or just because a bear is the closest thing the locals know of? Casey Anderson investigates the jucucu on Monster Encounters, and while I haven't been able to watch the episode, or find anyone who has, some details are provided in the episode's dramatic trailer. Anderson's probably right about undiscovered 'monsters' prowling the Amazon, but taking the illustration, the livestock-killing, and the brief glimpse of a bear at face value does reinforce a bear identity for the jucucu itself, despite the massive size and the foul smell (a possible conflation with the mapinguari on the part of the Travel Channel?). And what are we to make of this reference from Simon Chapman's The Monster of the Madidi (2001), describing an animal which was not a spectacled bear, but was far too large for a monkey?
With the Mono Rey, I'm not so sure. But, I was told there are two sorts. One is black and a bit smaller than me. The other has brown hair and is two and a half metres tall. Now that is not the Ucumari I saw. All that selva — the Beu, the Chepite, the Madidi. No one has been to most of it. Anything could be there.
Sloths north of the Amazon
While the best evidence comes from regions south of the Amazon River, the mapinguari has also been reported from the tropical rainforest in the north. In fact, some of Oren's accounts, all of them old sightings from elderly woodsmen, come from Amapá in northeastern Brazil, bordering French Guiana. Although many published sightings from immediately north of the river are undetailed or more reminiscent of primates, one atypical sighting was that of Luis Jorge Salinas, who went on to become a prominent investigator of the mapinguari and similar cryptids.
According to his book Amazonas: ¿Pleistoceno Park? Un Testimonio Real (2010), Salinas first encountered a mapinguari while working on a roadside farm 38 kilometers from Manaus when he was 24 years old, between May 1985 and May 1986. At that time, he and the farm's other inhabitants were troubled by a frequent nighttime howling, "impressive, mournful, and frightening," which some locals believed were made by a lobisomem or "paçalobo," superwolf. Salinas shot a young one of these animals in the face when it approached the farm one night, driving it into the forest and perhaps killing it. Later on during the same night, Salinas claims to have observed a much larger individual of the same species standing where the shooting had occurred, roaring. Some time later, Salinas observed a group of individuals composed of a male, several females, and a young calf, moving down the road, apparently keeping in order by toad-like vocalisations and head bobbing. They entered a mango plantation to feed on the trees, the females feeding the calf by cutting up small pieces of food in her mouth. The herd disappeared into the trees after being disturbed by a group of passing people from another local farm, but Salinas claimed to have seen them again on two other occasions not long afterwards. Salinas has rejected the idea that these animals were bears, and according to him, they most closely resembled this reconstruction of Megalonyx wheatleyi. He described a few unique features, such as humped backs, "tortoise-like" necks, and bare chests and abdomens; and he compared their unsteady gaits to Charlie Chaplin's famous waddle.
Richard Terry of Man v. Monster collected accounts from near the Venezuelan border, the region from which Jaroslav Mareš heard of the more monkey-like version, which travels in pairs. And explorer-cryptozoologist Arnošt Vašíček reports that "nomadic Indians" of the Orinoco Basin claim to have seen a sloth alleged to be a whopping 16' long, which uses its great claws to pull down branches and dig up roots.
Furthermore, the animal seems to be known to Venezuela's most famous people, the Yanomami. While visiting a Yanomami village in southern Venezuela, Gustavo Sánchez Romero produced a set of animal flashcards, which some of village's boys and women began to identify. Alongside normal animals, Sánchez Romero had included a card showing a ground sloth, and, although most failed to recognise it, four people exclaimed at once: "owhuama!" The owhuama, they explained with minimal prompting, is a sturdily-built, hairy animal with strong-clawed arms powerful enough to tear down trees and toss jaguars into the air. A ground-dwelling herbivore, it walks both quadrupedally and bipedally, and generally leaves backwards-facing tracks. It lives in deep, cool caves, and communicates by howling and lowing. Though rare, it can be dangerous when it attacks in self-defense, so the Yanomami have a great respect for it.
This amazing cryptozoological dissertation ends with a finger pointed south; that is, to Brazil. The owhuama preferentially lives over there, just on the opposite side of the elaborate, circular Yanomami hut. The impenetrable jungle and the endless forested backwaters hide the identity of a creature from another time.
What is it?
Kenneth Campbell and Brad Rancy theorised that the mapinguari could be explained by spectacled bears seasonally coming down from the cold mountains during the winter, into Brazil's warmer climate, and these bears are quite monstrous-looking when they stand upright. However, as we have seen, every time this identity has been put to someone familiar with the mapinguari, it has been flatly rejected, and probably with good reason. As far as I can tell, spectacled bears have never been explicitly reported (either officially or unofficially) from further northeast than Peru's Madre de Dios region. Why has nobody in Brazil ever recognised these supposed migratory bears as bears? Furthermore, the spectacled bear's behaviour is not a good match. They are generally shy, attacking only when they or their young are threatened, and they're famously arboreal. The mapinguari is usually aggressive, surely too bulky to climb, and browses by tearing down trees, which would be a waste of time if it were arboreal. To explain Brazilian mapinguari sightings with spectacled bears requires us to accept that unusually large specimens of these bears seasonally migrate into, or already exist in, the Amazon, yet never behave anything like normal members of their species, and have never been identified as what they are by the 100 or so people who've seen them. Going down the bear route, some unknown species, or perhaps even a surviving Arctotherium, seems more likely than a spectacled bear. And this might be explaining one unknown with another, but cryptid bears have been reported from the Amazon and the Andes: the gigantic milne of the Ucayali, the red-furred bear of the Muscarena Mountains, and the pygmy brown bear of Yanachaga-Chemillén.
The early cryptozoologists saw the mapinguari as a giant primate, possibly a howler monkey, as suggested by Dale A. Drinnon. There is no precedence for a giant Amazonian monkey in the fossil record (with all the Pleistocene giant monkeys coming from the Atlantic Forest), but, as will be seen below, this means little. But although some mapinguari sightings might refer to monkeys, the size, bulk, claws, and terrestrial lifestyle of Oren's mapinguari all speak against a uniform monkey identity. Also, as we've seen, a clawed animal which can not be a monkey has still been described as one. A giant peccary is another feasible possibility, although peccaries cannot stand on their hind legs, and Marc Van Roosmalen's research suggests it's possible that the larger they get, the better they smell.
It was of course David Oren who first proposed that the mapinguari could be an extant ground sloth. At first he argued this based on small points such as tracks, faeces, diet, and behaviour, but after interviewing the seven hunters, the physical description also became very sloth-like. I probably don't need to point out the many similarities (and the discrepancies) in all the physical descriptions, and how they generally conform to a cow-sized ground sloth; but alongside the more obvious features, Oren suggested that, because of the inward curvature of a ground sloth's tracks, anyone seeing a series of them might interpret them the wrong way around, leading to a belief that the animal has backwards feet; and the round, "bottle" track said to be left by the mapinguari may be the imprint of a ground sloth's powerful tail. But assuming it is a ground sloth, its familial placement has been the subject of controversy, since some have claimed that the mapinguari combines the traits of different sloth families. This really comes down to the fact that it has both canine teeth and, supposedly, osteoderms (little pieces of bone armour beneath its skin, which Oren suggests would explain its invulnerability). Osteoderms are a feature of mylodontids and scelidotheriids, whereas canines are a feature of megalonychids (or so we're often told).
But does the mapinguari need osteoderms to be bulletproof? Even tree sloths have remarkable vitality, and the combination of matted hair, a powerful ribcage, and perhaps tough soft tissue could be enough to stop a bullet, without even mentioning the possibility that "bulletproof" mapinguaris could simply wander off to die slowly. True, the kida harara has both long fangs and "pebbles" under its skin, but the Karitiana might have incorporated memories of an extinct mylodontid into an extant megalonychid, since they could hardly know for sure that it has osteoderms without killing and dissecting one. On the other hand, there was in fact a mylodontid, Glossotherium robustum, which had both osteoderms and sexually-dimorphic caniniforms, and it did live in the Amazonian savannahs, but it's thought to have been a mixed feeder with a preference for grazing in open habitats. But trying to make such a specific identification is probably a mistake, and in any case, the mapinguari might not even be known from the fossil record—despite Heuvelmans' theory, the mapinguari could a rainforest specialist which lived in what remained of the rainforest during the ice age, and as far as I know, no unambiguous Late Pleistocene rainforest assemblages are known from the Amazonian region. There's also the remote possibility that more than one type of ground sloth has survived in the Amazon. One problem with a ground sloth identity, which Oren admits, is the mapinguari's tail, described as short, short and broad, or, on one occasion, large and thick. Ground sloths had relatively long, broad tails.
While the segamai, ujea, and owhuama could feasibly be folk memories of ground sloths, the mapinguari surely could not: 100 people did not see, and 7 hunters did not shoot, a memory. And reading descriptions of the kida harara, I was struck by the fact that the descriptions gathered from random, non-eyewitness Karitiana by anthropologist Felipe Velden are often quite contradictary, and not very sloth-like. This begs the question: if the kida harara is merely a cultural memory of a ground sloth, part of a shared Karitiana folklore, then why are the people who claim to have seen it for themselves the only ones to accurately describe a ground sloth?
The future
Writing in 1993, Oren feared that the mapinguari had recently become extinct: first-hand reports from Amapá in northeast Amazonas all came from elderly woodsmen, and Oren had no records of any sightings from the Tapajós Basin dating to within the previous twenty years. However, while he believed that it had very recently been extirpated from the eastern Amazon, he thought that small numbers could still exist in the far west of the Brazilian Amazon, in Amazonas and Acre, and sightings from the west have been reported into the 21st Century. While many zoologists and palaeontologists consider its existence unlikely, within cryptozoology it is often brought up as one of the cryptids most likely to be real. Karl Shuker, for instance, considers it possibly "one of the most likely creatures in the cryptozoological annals to be officially unveiled one day by science," while Richard Freeman lists it as one of the ten cryptids most likely to be discovered in the 21st Century.
To conclude, Bernard Heuvelmans suggested in 1955 that ground sloths might be found in the Amazon, and decades later he was justified by David Oren, who came to believe that descriptions of the mapinguari referred to a ground sloth. When he made this proposal, the data he had was suggestive of a ground sloth in the little details, such as tracks and faeces, rather than in the full description, which was not entirely sloth-like. But he was later backed up by the hunters' descriptions, which painted a picture of a very ground sloth-like animal. Now Shuker and Freeman suggest that the mapinguari's existence may be proven in the 21st Century. Will they too be justified?
Sightings map
I've pinned some mapinguari sightings (and others from Canada, the U.S., Central America, and Patagonia) onto a map using Google Maps. (?) denotes that the location of the sighting is known only vaguely; O that the sighting is placed relatively securely; (O) that it is placed with some certainty; and 🌊 that the sighting occurred at any possible point along the marked body of water. Of course the reason why most of these sightings occur along rivers and near towns or plantations is because that's where people are most likely to come into contact with a rare forest animal.
Selected sources
submitted by CrofterNo2 to Cryptozoology [link] [comments]


2020.10.15 18:52 TinyyOctopus ACT black book second edition PDF?

Does anyone happen to have a pdf of the black book second edition!? I could really use it for the 24th date, I took the sat recently and have the sat book.
submitted by TinyyOctopus to ACT [link] [comments]


2020.10.15 17:28 SHADOWSTRIKE1 Passed my CCNA exam with a 906!

PROOF
Hey everybody,
I've been lurking here for a long time, so it feels good to finally make this post. And it's going to be long, sorry. I passed my exam on the 13th at a local testing center, and figured I'd share my journey for those that may be looking for encouragement. I originally started my CCNA studies last fall before the format update. I didn't have much time to study, so I held off until the new exam came out. I began studying in February, while working a full-time job, and I would study leisurely in my free time. I finished my courseware a couple weeks ago, set my exam date, and took a week off to review from the moment I woke up until about midnight every day leading up to my exam.
What I used:
1) CBT Nuggets course This is the source I used as my main study method, so it'll be my biggest review section. I'm more of a visual learner, so I signed up for this course at the end of January. It's a lot of video. The course is taught by Jeremy Ciaora, Keith Barker, and Chuck Keith (NetworkChuck). They do a great job of keeping a consistent workspace between the three of them (they all use the same growing topology). Jeremy starts you off with a lot of the fundamentals and introductions to IOS setup, eventually leading to Keith teaching the meat of routing protocols, and finally Chuck teaching automation. The course did a good job demonstrating fundamentals of each topic so that you understand everything, but didn't go into too much depth (which for most topics was totally fine). One thing that was really cool is that the site implements a virtual lab that launches a VM with MTPutty connected to some virtual devices you can configure, and everything is set up exactly as you need for that session, so it's easy to jump right into a topic and have everything set up just as you need. One of the downsides is that the course is expensive... $60 a month is a lot for many people. If you go the CBT route, don't do what I did and stretch it out for 9 months (for many reasons). Another thing that was kind of a bummer is that the team does a great job discussing the cool things you can do with various topics, but then we don't really do that, mostly due to that being out of spec for this level of exam (like when Chuck ran some cool python scripts to pull in information from multiple switches or push config out to many devices). Not really their fault, but it was a letdown to get so hyped up and then see the CCNA only scratched the surface. However, the number one thing this course does is keep you EXCITED. The team is very passionate and upbeat. No droning on. For me, that was especially important.
2) CCNA 200-301 OCG by Wendell Odom Admittedly, I didn't read through most of the books. Mostly what I used them for was when I didn't understand a topic in CBT, I could go and read about it in the OCG for a deeper explanation. It's really not as dry as people make it out to be. Compared to some of my textbooks in college, this one seemed great and at least tries to convey things in a personal manner. I'm just not much of a textbook guy when I don't have to be.
3) CCNA 200-301 Quick Reference Guide by Matt Carey I can't recommend this enough. I don't see anything by Matt Carey recommended here or on Discord very often, and that needs to change. This book is only like $13 on Amazon, or you can get it as a pdf for free with his Udemy course (which I'd recommend instead). The Amazon book is black & white, which isn't a big deal, but it was much nicer seeing the pdf in full color, and since the Udemy course is just about the same price, you may as well get that. This most helpful thing about this book is that it's formatted in the exact same way as the exam topics. So if you read an exam topic and aren't sure what it entails, you can open this book and it will give you a brief rundown of information. It won't be too in-depth, but as a review book, or just as something to put you on the right track so you know what to search for in the OCG, this is fantastic. The entire book is only like 112 pages, so it's not a huge read, and there's a lot of good information in there. It's like buying a Cliffnotes book.
4) Boson ExSim This. This is an absolute must-have. Questions felt mostly similar to the real thing, and the exam environment was extremely similar. But the "study mode" of this exam was fantastic. After every question it gives a VERY detailed explanation of why the answer was correct, and why the others were wrong, as well as a brief overview. This is what really helped me learn the intricate details of each topic. I would first go through in Study Mode, but treat it like an exam. Then if I got a question wrong, I would thoroughly read the explanation. My initial score was 640-something and I panicked, as I only had 3 days before the exam. But I made sure to read through the explanations carefully and review the topics in my books. My second test score was 849 and my third was 876. I took exam A on Saturday, then studied. Then exam B on Sunday, and studied. Then exam c on Monday, and studied. Again, I can't recommend this enough. I liked this practice exam much better than Kaplan or Pearson Vue.
5) 31 Days Before Your CCNA by Allan Johnson This book was great. If you're like me and don't want to read tons of textbook explanations, this book provides shorter descriptions, and uses multiple sources. Admittedly I didn't use the book the way you're supposed to and actually do one chapter per day leading up to your exam, but I feel that would be an awesome way to prepare. Still, a great little book. I just wish it was laid out better. It's probably a good format to grow day by day, but when trying to review it felt weird jumping around all over the book.
6) The CCNA Discord channel Seriously you guys, join in on this Discord channel. Even if you've never used Discord before, it's worth it to chat with everyone there. Lots of helpful people offering help on questions that just don't make sense, and they can help describe topics to you. It's also very encouraging to interact with people who are also studying. I could post practice exam questions and they'd help me see why the answer was the way it was. They also gave me plenty of advice on what the testing environment will be like so I knew what I was going into. There's also a collection of labs available for you to practice with.
7) YouTube (Keith Barker and NetworkChuck) Keith's youtube channel has some really great CCNA videos that are worth watching. Much of it is actually the same video he has up on CBT Nuggets, but then he has more videos that go into more depth than the CBT course, not to mention he has Q&A from the live stream that answers a few questions. NetworkChuck just started his CCNA course with Jeremy Ciaora, so I can't speak on that... but his other videos really helped me in an unexpected way. I know not too long ago there was some drama with people on here trying to drag his channel, but you know what? The guy keeps things exciting and interesting, and to me that's extremely motivating which is very important for a guy like me who's 30 and works overtime each day at their job. Motivation is gold.
8) Anki flashcards The shared CCNA 200-301 deck is fantastic. Goes over all the important terms from the OCG. As someone who didn't really read the OCG all the way, this was a good method of making sure I learned some extra bits. I ended up making sub-decks and adding each chapter to its own sub-deck to study individually.
9) My job Like I said, I work full-time. I got hired out of college as a Network & Security Technician... unfortunately, the whole team was clearing out with someone moving, someone getting fired, etc. so it was just me left on the team after a couple weeks. People moved over to the Networking team from Helpdesk over time, but I never had anyone to learn from. I was always leading the team, though I had very little networking experience from college. Most of my job involved supporting some proprietary software and setting up new servers, but very little Networking stuff. Most of that was handled by our parent company. Finally this past year I was promoted to "Server & Network Administrator" officially overseeing the team, and also I was finally given access to our networking equipment through RADIUS. I still wasn't doing much work, but I was able to do small things like changing vlans on interfaces, resetting ports, troubleshooting some problems, etc. But it was really cool whenever I would go through a topic in my studies, and then I'd have a problem at work that would involve my new knowledge. So a big motivator in this process was to gain more knowledge to do my job better, become more independent from our parent company, and also ease some imposter syndrome I've been having with my position. Overall, it was nice seeing a real-world example of a configured environment I was familiar with and making small changes.
Overall, this was a great experience. I learned a ton, and that felt good after being out of school for 5 years now. You may notice that I didn't mention my college experience on here... While I think I learned a lot in college that has given me a lot of other skills, we only barely touched Networking in my freshman year. Most other classes involved SQL and programming languages, and honestly I had forgotten most of my Networking knowledge by this time. Not knocking college, I still recommend it for those that can go (especially affordably), but certainly don't feel like it was a huge factor in my success here. There are a lot of other great sources out there like Jeremy's IT Lab and David Bombal's Udemy course (which I poked through both a little). These are just my experiences and what worked for me.
Sorry for such a long post, I just had a lot to get out regarding my journey through this. Please feel free to ask any questions, and I'll try to answer as best as I can or am allowed to.
submitted by SHADOWSTRIKE1 to ccna [link] [comments]


2020.10.14 17:48 moteur_action The Garlasco murder: who killed Chiara Poggi?

Chiara Poggi and Alberto Stasi
In the early morning of August 13th, 2007, the streets of the small and peaceful town of Garlasco, located in the province of Pavia (Lombardy), are desert. Many families have left their suburban houses to spend the national holiday of Ferragosto, which takes place on the 15th, somewhere else: the Poggi family, Chiara’s parents and her younger brother Marco, chose the Dolomites for the fresh air and to hike in the mountains, while the Stasi are in Spotorno, a popular seaside destination in Liguria. The weather in Garlasco is warm (about 80°F) and wet. At 13:45, Chiara Poggi, a 26-years-old accountant, is found dead by her boyfriend Alberto Stasi, 24, who’s about to complete an Economics degree at the prestigious Bocconi University in Milan. Chiara is still wearing her pajamas, the blinds of the house are closed, breakfast leftovers are on the table and the TV is on.
Chiara’s body lies on the floor at the bottom of the steep stairs leading to the cottage’s basement. The cause of death was determined to be a “laceration of the brain contextual to the breaking of the skull.” The time of death is never precisely stated, but the autopsy suggests Chiara died between 8 and 13. The interval between the production of all the injuries and death could be limited to a few minutes, but the defense expert hypothesized a longer agony based on the kind of injuries. Chiara was hit in the head and face 10-15 times, only to be thrown at the bottom of the cellar stairs. The weapon was never found, but experts suggested she may have been hit with a hammer or a pair of bolt cutters. This is the transcript of Stasi’s call to the emergency medical service made at 13:50:
“Yes, I need an ambulance in via Giovanni Pascolo, in Garlasco.”
“In Garlasco?”
“Yes.”
“Via Giovanni Pascolo, what’s the address?”
“29, it’s an alley, you’ll find it immediately.”
“What?”
“It’s an alley, I think it’s 29, I’m not sure.”
“What happened?”
“I think a person has been killed, but I’m not sure, maybe she’s alive.”
“What do you mean, what happened, what can you see?”
“Now I’m with the Carabinieri, there’s blood everywhere and she’s lying on the floor.”
“Is she outside or in the house?”
“No, in the house.”
“Yes, but are you related to her?”
“No, she’s my girlfriend.”
“How old is she?”
“26”
“Are you in the house right now?”
“No, I’m at the police station, now I’ll tell you what happened.”
First suspect: Alberto Stasi
The investigators were immediately suspicious of Stasi’s involvement because – although the hallway leading to the basement was extremely messy, covered with stains of blood, some of them partially dried – the soles of the Lacoste shoes Alberto had been wearing when he entered Chiara’s house were perfectly clean. The assumption was Stasi never went in the house and that the emergency call was made outside because he already knew Chiara was dead.
It was reported that Stasi’s first interrogation conducted by the Carabinieri went on for 17 hours – he left the police station on the morning of August 14th. (Stasi didn’t ask for a lawyer nor refused to answer any question, so he wasn’t actually coerced.) Stasi told the investigators he spent the evening before the murder at Chiara’s eating a pizza, working on his thesis, chatting, and watching an episode of Sex and the City with her; he left sometime after midnight. In the interrogation, discussing the discovery of the body, Stasi said he was particularly struck by seeing a “white part” of her face opening the door leading to the basement. Carabinieri marshal Francesco Marchetto replied to Stasi’s observation: “Piece of shit, does her face seem white to you?” showing a photo of Chiara as she was found by the police, her face completely covered with blood and hair.
Alberto had recently returned from a study trip to London. Since the Poggi family was away, he and Chiara had the house all for themselves. In the first days of August, the couple apparently spent uneventful days; on the evening of the 7th, after a job interview in Milan, Alberto went to her house in the evening. He “slept in her brother’s bed and Chiara in hers” because they didn’t want “to sleep in her parents’ bed and she didn’t want to open the double sofa bed.” Also on August 10th, they slept at Chiara’s house, but not the following night, because she “had to feed the cats.”
Stasi said he spent the morning of the 13th working on his thesis and watching pornographic images. He spoke to his mother on the phone for some minutes (at 9:47) and tried to reach out to his girlfriend several times with no success; he then got worried and went to her house, discovering she’d been murdered.
I had set the alarm clock at 9 as usual and the second alarm at 9:30. I got up and at 9:45 I called Chiara’s cell phone with no reply. I specify that this ring in the morning when we got up, it was an usual thing between me and Chiara. I didn’t worry about the fact that she didn’t answer. I remember that between 9:30 and 10 my mother called the landline number and I answered, our conversation didn’t last long. I went on writing the thesis and at about 10:45 I made another ring on Chiara’s cell phone and I didn’t get an answer. I continued to write the thesis until about 12:20, when I called Chiara both from the landline phone both to her landline number and to the cell phone.
Chiara didn’t answer but Alberto fed the dog, cooked some pasta, called again at 13:31; he then “started to worry and decided to go to her house.”
Other suspects. The Cappa sisters
The first clue to the investigation was provided by a neighbor of the Poggi, Claudia Bermani: on the morning of the murder at 9:10 (“I’m sure about this because I often look at my watch”) she saw a black girl’s bike in front of the Poggi’s house; at 9:30, the bike wasn’t there anymore. The account was corroborated by another witness. Maybe the vicious attacker is a woman.
Paola and Stefania Cappa are the direct cousins of Chiara Poggi. It cannot be said they inadvertently ended up in the investigation considered they showed up at Chiara’s house some days after the murder in a convertible flashing to journalists a photo (later discovered to be photoshopped) of them and their cousin smiling on a trip together. At the time of the murder, Stefania walked on crutches because of a minor incident; someone suggested the possible weapon could have been one of the crutches. The Cappa sisters killed Chiara (for whatever reason). Stasi himself seems to think something at least similar to this is being overlooked. In a wiretapped phone conversation, he refers to Stefania: “What the fuck does she want? That one has to be careful and hope they don’t come to confiscate cars, bicycles, crutches... those two, I get goosebumps just thinking about it, look... The police go to them, search, take two receipts... and that would be an investigation?” In another conversation with his mother: “The investigators found a dyed hair, let’s hope it belongs to that whore.”
A week after the murder, a bricklayer who was working at a construction site located less than 100 m (320 ft) from Alberto Stasi’s house and next to the ambulance headquarters where Stefania had been volunteering for years reported a missing hammer.
Andrea Sempio
The phone records of Chiara’s landline number included calls from 19-year-old Andrea Sempio, one of the best friends of Marco; he lived just 250 m (820 ft) away from the Poggi. From January 2007, Sempio’s calls were only five so it’s clear he wasn’t used to calling Marco at his house. Moreover, 3 of these calls were made between the 7th and 8th of August, when Marco had already left with his parents for the Dolomites:
August 7th, 17:42 Sempio cell phone > Poggi landline 2 seconds
17:48 Sempio landline phone > Poggi landline 8 seconds
August 8th, 16:54 Sempio cell phone > Poggi landline 21 seconds
Sempio said that Marco’s house phone number was listed just above the mobile in the phonebook. Also, according to his statement, he discovered on the 7th that his friend had left because Chiara answered the phone and gave him that precise information. It remains unexplained why he called Chiara’s house again the following day making a longer phone call when he already knew that Marco had left. Sempio was interrogated again 10 months after the facts and this time he curiously provided a well-preserved ticket of a parking lot in Vigevano (19 km/11.8 miles from Garlasco) dating back to August 13 at 11:18. Andrea explained that a few days after the murder, the receipt popped up in his car and since he had already been heard by the investigators, his mom advised him to keep it: “since there had been a murder, it was better to keep the receipt.”
Sempio was a person of interest before Stasi became the main suspect. He was then mostly ignored until after the SC final conviction when one of the defense experts on Stasi’s team proved that the mitochondrial DNA on top of Chiara’s nails (originally considered too exiguous to be tested) is fully compatible with Andrea Sempio. In 2017, the Court of Appeal declared the circumstantial evidence against Sempio to be insubstantial, remarking that he frequently used the home computer of the Poggi and that both the coroner and the defense expert believed it unlikely the DNA on top of the nails was caused by a struggle. A detail which is probably irrelevant but still interesting is that Chiara’s pajamas shirt had written all over “Don’t forget my past.” On his Facebook profile, Sempio chose to display a famous quote from Antoine de-Saint-Exupéry’s The Little Prince, which is apparently also Stasi’s favorite book: “The essential is invisible to the eyes, don’t forget my secret.” Sempio’s shoe size is 44.
2008: The first case against Alberto Stasi (State Attorney Rosa Muscio’s reconstruction of the murder)
August 13th, 9:35 Stasi turns on the PC
9:35 to 9:46 looks at some pornographic images
9:57 launches an image editing software
10:05 opens a pornographic video
10:17 to 12:20 works on his thesis continuously, raising the number of pages from 151 to 155
Muscio chose not to put much weight on the black girl’s bike in virtue of the fact the official autopsy, while compatible with the death happening around 9:30, indicated a later time to be more likely, but especially because according to the key eye-witness Franca the three city bikes owned by the Stasi were unlike the “sport model” she had seen on August 13th. However, DNA traces of Chiara were found on the pedals of the red bike used by Stasi, who guessed that maybe he came into contact with Chiara’s menstrual blood (Muscio told Stasi it was blood, though the analysis wasn’t actually conclusive).
Muscio argued that Stasi didn’t sleep at his girlfriend’s house the night before the murder basically because they had a discussion regarding his obsession with pornography and taking pictures of strangers’ feet (the photo album of the study trip to London contained more photos depicting feet of unknown women than his girlfriend). Perhaps it was because of the useless attempts at reconciliation that Chiara switched the house alarm on and off four times, between 23:27 and 1:52 on the night before her murder. It may have been Stasi who went out and back and finally left; not the cats as initially supposed. Chiara didn’t make any phone calls that morning because she wasn’t in the right mood; that’s why she didn’t leave the house and the windows were closed. She stayed in her pajamas and didn’t clear the table because she was on vacation, but she turned off the alarm at the usual time (9:12) out of habit. Stasi tried to call Chiara on the phone multiple times, getting progressively angrier and maybe worried that Chiara would reveal his secret, destroying the self-image of the successful businessman he wanted to embody. Stasi rode the red bike to Chiara’s house and killed her in a window of ten to fifteen minutes at most after 12:20 (when Stasi stopped working on his thesis).
Stasi’s defense team replied the evidence against him was weak and could be easily explained: Alberto’s left ring fingerprint on the soap dispenser (the only trace, together with Chiara’s hair in the sink, found in the otherwise uncannily neat and clean bathroom of the Poggi) was there because the young couple had eaten a pizza on the evening of August 12th and probably, before he started working on his thesis again, Alberto went to wash his hands. The DNA on the pedals of the red bike could be sweat or saliva, but it’s not actually relevant at all, since Bermani saw a different type of bike at 9:15 (just three minutes after Chiara shut off the house alarm) on which the prosecution should focus. The defense experts argued that Stasi’s immaculate shoes were compatible with a genuine discovery of the body in virtue of an “unconscious avoidance” (Alberto has unconsciously avoided visible stains) and any tiny trace of blood may have been released by the soles through the use of the shoes in the following hours. Stasi’s team also pointed the finger at footprints on the crime scene left by a pair of shoes with textured rubber soles (different than the pair of Lacoste Stasi had been wearing, although they’re the same size, 42). Finally, in contrast to Muscio’s account, the defense held that Stasi had no motive to kill Chiara: phone communications show she was not bothered by her boyfriend’s interest in pornography and they’d even took intimate pictures together (though Alberto admitted he somehow had to push Chiara to do it).
The split between the prosecution and the civil party: Gian Luigi Tizzoni’s reconstruction of the murder
Gian Luigi Tizzoni was a family friend of the Poggi and he represented them as individuals damaged by the crime who intended to make a claim for compensation against Stasi. While Tizzoni wasn’t as passionate as prosecutor Muscio and his rhetorical abilities couldn’t measure up to those of defense attorney Giarda, from the first moment his reconstruction appeared to be the most promising – he thought that Chiara deactivated the house alarm at 9:12 in order to let in her killer, who then fleed with the black girl’s bike; that would explain why Stasi wasn’t seen by anyone and the stains of blood were partially dried when the police came to Chiara’s house. It’s still unclear, though, how Stasi got rid of the bike, the weapon and the dirty clothes he was wearing during the attack; it’s also somewhat strange he started working on his thesis less than an hour after the murder, but not impossible, especially given the coolness displayed by Stasi in the aftermath.
In the year following the murder, Stasi’s phone conversations were wiretapped and the transcripts show he complained many times about the Cappa sisters or the fact he was being monitored (on June 7th, 2008, he called his friend Marco Panzarasa who was at a concert and joked: “You could hear the whole stadium singing... So I thought, and now how does the deputy sergeant transcribe the phone call? [laughing]”), but the suspect did not mention his murdered ex-girlfriend Chiara a single time.
According to Tizzoni’s reconstruction, Stasi changed his clothes and shoes and went to Chiara’s some time after 13, but decided not to go in: that’s the reason why his soles were clean and why in his witness statement he told about the “white part” of the victim’s face, which Tizzoni believed to be what Stasi saw immediately after he had thrown the lifeless body of Chiara down the cellar stairs.
Stasi was acquitted by a monocratic judge in 2008 for lack of evidence. The uncertainty about Stasi’s guiltiness was “serious” because there were only two strong circumstantial pieces against him: his ring fingerprint on the dispenser and Chiara’s DNA on at least one of the red bike pedals. (Judge Vitelli apparently accepted the defendant’s argument about the unconscious avoidance of the bloodstains in the hallway.) The proof of Alberto’s alibi was “solid,” while the time windows indicated by Muscio and Tizzoni “too narrow“ for the alleged attack. Muscio handed the investigation to State Attorney Laura Barbaini, who was going to lead the prosecution in the appeal trial before the Court of Assizes of Milan.
2011: The second case against Alberto Stasi (A new possible motive)
Barbaini asked again for 30 years in jail (voluntary murder with the aggravating circumstance of cruelty) and strived to underline the problematic nature of the young couple’s sex life. Chiara’s parents stopped believing Stasi was innocent when the digital forensics team found child pornography (images and videos shared with eMule) on his computer and she suggested that may have precisely been the motive: Chiara fought with her boyfriend on the night of August 12th after realizing her boyfriend’s preoccupation with pornography wasn’t as harmless as she thought. Neither Barbaini nor Tizzoni presented new evidence. Stasi was again acquitted “for not having committed the deed”; in the sentencing report, the Court stated that Chiara’s death was an “unknowable truth.” The parents of the victim, media commentators, overall many Italians interested in the case criticized the Court for having reached the judgment in less than a month. The last hope for the Poggi family to see the young and gentle boy they had once believed to be innocent getting convicted was the Supreme Court. Barbaini left her place to the Supreme Court prosecutor Roberto Aniello.
2013: the Supreme Court overturns the two acquittals and orders a re-trial
In the opening statement of the appeal trial before the SC, Angelo Giarda (the leader of Stasi’s defense team and one of the most notorious criminal attorneys in Italy) ironically addressed Aniello: “If a law student of mine had presented the appeals that led Alberto to the Supreme Court, if he had had that discussion during an exam, I would have failed him.” Prosecutor Aniello argued instead that
the sentences that acquitted Stasi are vitiated by illogicalities which undermine the sentencing motivations. The clues have been examined in isolation, not organically. The gaps in the investigation prevented a complete verification of the facts that led to the tragic death of Chiara Poggi.
The “gaps” mentioned probably include the fact that more than twenty individuals walked into Chiara’s house in the hours after the murder and that Carabinieri marshal Marchetto (an intimate friend of the Stasi family) committed perjury when he testified the bike witnessed by Franca Bermali wasn’t compatible with neither of the three city bikes owned by the Stasi. Marchetto was also the officer who executed the search warrant for a girl’s bike in Stasi’s house, so it’s not unreasonable to assume he preferred not to seize a black bike if he’d seen one in the garage. Aniello advanced a new reconstruction clearly influenced by Tizzoni’s reasoning:
The deactivation and reactivation of the alarm system of the Poggi house at 1:52 is not adequately explained; it’s suggested it occurred in order to let the cats in, but it’s not clear why it couldn’t have been Stasi who came back and spent the night there, and then finally left at 9:12, immediately after committing the murder. The reconstruction according to which the murder was committed after 9:12 is assumed to be unquestionable without giving any reason for the exclusion of an alternative hypothesis compatible with the autopsy. […] The murder was committed by a person the victim knew well enough to open the door in pajamas. The same judgment under appeal acknowledges that there has been no break-in and that no valuable asset has been stolen. The hypothesis of a man who climbed over the gate or the surrounding wall – who (immediately after Chiara deactivated the alarm) entered the house and attacked her, hitting her several times until killing her, then dragged the body to the cellar door, opened the door and threw the body on the stairs, apparently went to the bathroom to clean himself (two missing towels), surely cleaned other surfaces (e.g. the cellar door, where there are no fingerprints) and finally left without taking anything – is simply fanciful.
Aniello also proposes an interesting interpretation of Stasi’s movements on the morning of August 13th:
Stasi makes a series of phone calls, both from landline and mobile and both on Chiara’s home phone and mobile phone, at regular intervals, the longest between 9:44 and 10:47, the shortest between 12:20 and 12:46. Between 10:46 and 10:48 there is a moment of nervous agitation, for Stasi makes seven calls on Chiara’s cell phone, which actually received only one of them because there was no signal. I’d say that this already suggests Stasi got upset when Chiara’s cell phone didn’t keep ringing and it was either turned off or unreachable. Then, at 13.27, something different happens: a call to the landline number of the Poggi is answered, the response lasts around 12 seconds, not a very short time; it’s an automatic operation caused by the answering machine. Immediately after this phone call with a silent answer, Stasi decides to go out and, while calling her repeatedly on the landline number and her cell phone, rushes to Chiara’s home. The fact is that the defendant will never say, once questioned, that he had a silent answer and remained on the line for 12 long seconds. And then, putting these circumstances together, it is reasonable to assume that Stasi, hearing that there was life on the other end, panicked and imagined that his victim had somehow recovered and picked up the phone.
Against all expectations the appeal ws successful: among the grounds for a mistrial, the SC ordered DNA tests and expert reports. Despite the cancellation of the two acquittals, the SC report reiterated that it was difficult “to reach a decision, be it acquittal or conviction, marked by consistency, credibility and reasonableness” and therefore “impossible to condemn or acquit Alberto Stasi,” preferring, however, not to confirm the acquittal pending new scientific examinations.
2014: Stasi re-trial: swapped pedals, the impossible walk and an unsatisfactory conviction
The SC requested two expert reports to be arranged: one to determine whether Stasi could have walked in the hallway towards the basement without coming into contact with the bloodstains, and the other aimed to test genetic residues on top of her nails and on a hair found in her hand.
Tests on billions of virtual combinations showed that if Stasi had stopped at the first step of the cellar stairs, the chance of not touching even an invisible bloodstain would have been 0.00038%; if he had gone down another step, the percentage would have been even lower. The generous assumption was that Stasi covered the hallway with only eight steps, even though it’s not easy to take one-meter steps as hypothesized in the first trial, especially if Stasi was somehow distraught. Furthermore, prosecution expert Testi believed that the theory of the “unconscious avoidance” had no scientific basis insofar bloodstains are no puddles or irrelevant obstacles (moreover Stasi would have had to avoid the stains even after the discovery of the body). The hair in Chiara’s hand could not be tested because it lacked the bulb, while the DNA on the nails wasn’t compatible with Stasi and deemed to be irrelevant since it hadn’t been caused by a struggle. Laura Barbaini, who led the prosecution another time after having lost the first trial, spun the narrative of an internally divided attacker:
Stasi as the one who discovered the body doesn’t exist. The killer Stasi entered that house a few hours earlier, wearing a pair of missing shoes (size 42) that left footprints identical to those found at the crime scene. The defense doesn’t want to surrender to the evidence and talks about the dispersion of traces or “unconscious avoidance.” The defense attorneys are clever but misleading. We can’t speak of dispersion because Stasi handed over the shoes only seventeen hours after the discovery of the body and he also claims to have entered the car immediately after the discovery of Chiara’s body though there isn’t a single trace of blood on his car mat.
Tizzoni attacked another point of the defendant’s account. While it’s true that Stasi didn’t own any bicycle compatible with the mysterious black girl’s bike seen by two witnesses at 9:15, the civil party lawyer found out that the pedals of the red bike handed to the investigators by Stasi were not those originally assembled with the model, but rather Wellgo pedals best suited for a sportive city bike. Tizzoni’s idea was that Stasi for some reason swapped the pedals of the bicycle on which he’d fleed from Chiara’s house and put them on the red bike he then gave to the police. This doesn’t make much sense, but at least it’s consistent with the witnesses’ account: Stasi got rid of the bike but decided to keep the pedals and that explains why Chiara’s DNA was found on them.
The Court of Assizes of Milan that presided the re-trial convicted Alberto Stasi for voluntary murder without the aggravating circumstances of having acted with cruelty or for futile reasons, even though the motive is not precisely stated in the motivations report compiled by the Court and the killing was in fact brutal. Stasi must serve 16 years in prison. In the automatic appeal filed to the Supreme Court, prosecutor Aniello asked the conviction to be confirmed and the addition of the aggravating circumstance of the cruelty (to exacerbate the sentence to a maximum of 30 years, contrasting the automatic reduction of years to serve by Stasi’s choice of a fast-track trial). Stasi asked either to be acquitted without delay or for another mistrial, referring to the doubts previously expressed by the Supreme Court itself on the impossibility of determining guilt or innocence with certainty.
The following year, in a curious twist, assistant SC prosecutor Oscar Cedrangolo (who temporarily took over Aniello) argued that gross errors had been made during the preliminary investigation and that Aniello and Mazzoni were making “an insistent attempt to find a motive in order to derive a causal element and doing so they revealed all the weakness of the accusatory system.” However, as a sign of “respect,” as the prosecutor himself said several times, he asked for a new trial against the murderer of Chiara Poggi, in acceptance of both the request of the victim’s family and the Stasi appeal. Cedrangolo also complained the CoA’s sentence to 16 years was absurd: ”If Stasi is innocent, he must be acquitted; if he’s guilty, the aggravating circumstances should be taken into account and he must be condemned to 30 years in prison.”
On December 12th, 2015, though, the Supreme Court confirmed the sentence-bis of the Court of Appeal of Milan finally condemning Alberto Stasi to 16 years of imprisonment without the delineation of a precise motive, generically proposing Stasi acted in a fit of rage and thus rejecting the aggravating circumstances of cruelty or futile reasons. Chiara Poggi’s mom, who had preferred not to join the SC proceedings after Cedrangolo’s indictment, was surprised when she talked with journalists after the sentencing hearing: “Justice has been done finally, the justice we wanted.” To the question of whether she was “happy” for Stasi’s conviction, she firmly replied that “it must never be forgotten that the tragedy affected two families.” Barbaini chose not to file an appeal to the SC to aggravate Stasi’s sentence.
In 2016, Stasi filed an extraordinary appeal for procedural defect (because witnesses not delegitimized in the sentencing motivations were not called to stand in the re-trial) and his defense team presented Andrea Sempio as a new suspect; Stasi complained his right to a fair trial had been violated. While the appeal was initially described as “well-founded” by the Attorney General of Milan, the Court of Appeal rejected Stasi’s request; he then filed another extraordinary appeal to the SC, hoping the rejection would be overturned, but the following year the SC confirmed the CoA’s decision.
This year, Stasi filed another appeal but I don’t think he really advanced “new” evidence; his lawyers were probably just pushing for a re-evaluation of the items against Sempio. The Court of Appeal refused to review the trial another time. On October 9th, 2020, Stasi announced he will move the appeal to the Supreme Court again. In his letters from prison, Stasi compares himself to Enzo Tortora (famous TV host who was unjustly accused of belonging to the Camorra) and asks Pope Francis to pray for him.
Sources
Francesco Caringella, The Summer of Garlasco: The Reconstruction of the Crime that Shocked Italy (2019, available in Italian, 228 pages)
Italian wiki page of the Garlasco murder
Court of Assizes’ sentencing report for the conviction of Stasi (December 17th, 2014)
Stasi brutally murdered girlfriend. Explanation of 16-year jail term released (March 16th, 2015)
New suspect in Garlasco murder case following DNA tests (December 23rd, 2016)
The Court of Appeal of Brescia rejects Stasi’s request of a third trial (January 24th, 2017)
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2020.10.13 13:34 hamzakhan007 How to apply for the US passport online?

How to apply for the US passport online?
For local and overseas travel through airlines, you will need a passport of your native state. Remember, the requirements of passport applications may vary in each state. Nowadays, it is easy to make passport photos online. Consulate of every country makes it easy to apply for an online passport because of coronavirus.
It is necessary to avoid the spread and danger of COVID-19 and protect their customers and the workforce. The passport operations are changed in each country. You have to visit the official passport website of your country to fill an application form.

https://preview.redd.it/yut89fh0mus51.png?width=619&format=png&auto=webp&s=176718577c56a39418e5f63972e805c924d070b3
If you want to apply for the passport of the United States, here are some critical requirements to follow. You can use Form ​DS-11 to:
● Apply for the first time for a U.S. passport.
● Your age is less than 16.
● You obtained your first U.S. passport when you were under 16 years of age.
● Your old passport of the United States was damaged, stolen, or lost.
● Your old US passport is almost 15 years old.
If you do not satisfy any of the above conditions, you can renew your passport with the use of Form DS-82. A person living in another country, including Canada, can submit a DS-11 form through the U.S. consulate or embassy. Nowadays, you can make passport photos online with reliable platforms.
Produce Evidence of Your Citizenship After filling an application form, you have to produce evidence of your citizenship. You must have a certified, physical, and original copy. Remember, a certified copy of a document has a stamp or seal of the certified issuing authority. You will need an undamaged, fully-valid U.S.passport (can be expired). Arrange a Birth certificate of the United States that meets these requirements:
● Issued by the birth state, country, or city
● Lists your date of birth, full name, and location of birth
● Has date filed with the office of the registrar (should be within a year of your birth)
● Write full names of your parents
● Has the signature of the registrar ● Has the seal of issuing authority ● Consular birth certification and overseas birth report ● Naturalization certificate ● Citizenship certificate
Remember, electronic or mobile birth certificates are not acceptable for the citizenship of the United States. However, you can submit a photocopy of your valid and original document. With online services, you can make passport photos online.
Photocopy of Citizenship Evidence If you want to submit photocopies of your citizenship evidence, you have to submit the back (if the information is printed) and front. The photocopies must be legible, single-sided, and black and white. Make sure to use a standard white paper of 8.5” x 11” for a copy.
Remember, if you are not interested in submitting a photocopy of citizenship; feel free to submit another certified copy of citizenship evidence. Without proof of citizenship, the process of passport processing might be delayed.
Present Identification Documents
Make sure to present relevant identification documents to the acceptance agent. Remember, an I.D. should identify you. These are some valid identity proofs for your passport application:
● Expired or valid, undamaged passport card or book of the United States
● A valid driver’s licenses with photo
● Make passport photos online
● Citizenship certificate
● Naturalization certificate
● I.D. of US military or dependent of military
● State employee I.D. (federal, state, county, and city)
● Valid (current) foreign passport
● Mexican consular I.D. (Matricula Consular): common for the parents of a USA resident child applicant
● Green card (USA Everlasting Resident Card): common for the parents of a USA resident child applicant
● Trusted ID for travelers, such as NEXUS, SENTRI, FAST, and Global Entry cards
● Improved Native American or Tribal Cards or photo I.D.s
Some other essential documents are entirely valid, in-state permit of learner with in-state, photo, fully valid I.D. of non-driver with photo and a provisional driver’s license. You have to present almost one extra I.D. while presenting these three crucial documents.
A few states may issue documents of digital i.d.s, such as mobile I.D.s and driver’s license. Remember, these I.D.s are not acceptable for the U.S. passport. It is essential to submit your photo I.D., physical I.D., and photocopies of the identification. You can decrease the chances of rejection because reliable services are available to make passport photos online.
Perfect US Passport Photos
Remember, you have to share a photo with a passport application. The requirements of every embassy are different. Photo policies apply to children and adults. Here are some necessary policies common for everyone:
● Submit a fresh, color photo, maximum of six months old.
● You have to submit a clear image to display features of your face clearly. Avoid using filters that are common on social media.
● Take off lenses or eyeglasses for a photograph.
● Use one plain off-white or white background.
It is essential to submit a high-resolution photo without pixelated, grainy, or blurry issues. The passport photo must be 51 x 51 mm (2x2 inches). Remember, the head should be between 25 to 35 mm from the base of the chin and top of your head.
Print your picture on glossy or matte photo quality paper. Avoid changing your photos digitally because it can impact the integrity of images. Moreover, avoid submitting a damaged photograph with smudges, crease, or holes.
Facial Expression for US Passport Photos
Feels free to choose a professional passport photo maker or ThePhotoApp to make ​US passport photos online. Your photo must have a natural smile and neutral expressions on the face. Keep both eyes open in the photographs. Remember, your full face should face a camera directly.
Remember, you may not get permission to wear glasses. If you are unable to remove glasses for medical reasons, get a signed note from your doctor to attach with your application. Always wear normal clothes for photographs. Avoid wearing uniforms or cover-up attires.
You should not wear anything that can cover your face. Moreover, avoid wearing wireless hand-free or headphone devices. Make sure to avoid fancy clothes and poses in photographs. Fortunately, several reliable services are available to make photos online. If you are from a different state, you have to present an extra I.D.
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2020.10.09 15:09 Bohrbrain The Gospel of Mark: Evidence of Petrine Origins (Part 2)

I thought it would be interesting to update my post I made about 6 months ago regarding the Petrine origins of Mark. After argumentation in favor of tradition, I will try to respond to important objections to Petrine origins (from Michael J. Kok, Joel Marcus, as well as criticisms I received last post) that I didn't respond to last time.

Internal evidence

1.1) Peter in Mark:
"Given its essentially smaller extent, the Gospel of Mark mentions Simon Peter more frequently than the other Synoptic Gospels and also more frequently than John, if we leave out the chapter which is critical of Peter in the supplement, John 21. Simon Peter is mentioned 25 times in all. Simon is the first disciple to be mentioned, in 1:16, directly after the proposition in 1:14, 15, and quite unusually his brother Andrew is described as ‘the brother of Simon’ (on this cf. 15:21). At the beginning of Jesus’ ministry, after the call of the first four disciples and the first exorcism in the synagogue of Capernaum, Jesus visits the house of the brothers—a report in the Gospel which falls outside its framework and seems very personal—and heals Simon’s mother-in-law (1:29). In 1:36, unusually, the first group of disciples is described as Σίμων καὶ οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ. Subsequently he stands at the head of all the lists of disciples, the Twelve and also the three and the four. All this cannot simply be explained as mere convention; there must be profound historical reasons behind it. As the spokesmen of the Twelve Peter not only acknowledges the messiahship of Jesus but is also sharply rejected by him (8:29, 32f.); he is an embodiment of the disciples’ lack of understanding and their failure. He is the last disciple whom Jesus addresses personally in Gethsemane (14:37), the last who accompanies Jesus as far as the courtyard of the high priest’s palace (14:37), indeed, even more, the last to be mentioned in the Gospel. [...] It can hardly be doubted that Mark is clearly stressing the unique significance of Peter, though without disguising his failure. Might this not be connected with the special origin of his tradition?
Certainly Simon Peter does not appear as a living individual, but as a type; however, this is part of the kerygamtic style of the narrator generally and affects all the people in the Gospel including Jesus himself."
(Hengel, Studies in the Gospel of Mark, p. 50-51)
SEE OBJECTION #1 FOR FURTHER ARGUMENTATION & EVIDENCE ON THIS VITAL POINT.

1.2) Parts of gMark read like a Direct Eyewitness Account (Independent of Papias' tradition)
As C.F.D Moule says (defending Papias' tradition): "Parts of [Mark] do, in fact, read like a direct, eyewitness account..." (C.F.D Moule, The Gospel According to Mark, The Cambridge Bible Commentary, p. 5)
This is exemplified in J.P Meier's work (vol. 2) The Marginal Jew. He thinks the following miracle stories are historical (in the sense of the Gospel of Mark portraying an accurate picture of what people thought occurred):
- The story of the healing of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46-52) -page 686-690
- The blind man of Bethsaida (Mark 8:22–26)- page 690-694
- Mark 2:1-12 - page 679-680
- The possessed boy (Mark 9:14–29) - page 653-656
- The deaf-mute (Mark 7:31–37)- 711-714
Maurice Casey also thinks that the miracles of Mark 1:23-27; Mark 1:32-34; Mark 3:1-6; Mark 5:21-43, etc, are "literally true," "authentic," and "genuine" (Jesus of Nazareth, 2010, p. 107, 109, 247-248, 268).

1.2.2) The Last Supper (Mark 14:22-24 1 Cor 11:23-25)
James P. Ware writes: "Two factors make Paul’s testimony invaluable for the historian. First, Paul’s account of the words and actions of Jesus on that night is independent of the Gospels. Second, Paul had extensive and direct contacts with apostles who had shared the table with Jesus on that night. Paul met with Peter for a fifteen-day conference in 37/38, for the specific purpose of hearing his eyewitness testimony to Jesus, and at the Apostolic Council in 48/49, Paul had met with Peter, John, and other apostles. It is historically certain that Paul had the opportunity to verify with Peter and the other eyewitnesses what Jesus had actually said and done on that night. After all, on these occasions Paul not only had extensive discussions with Peter and other members of the Twelve, but, as we have seen, he also shared in the celebration of the Eucharist with them. Paul’s letters provide striking and explosive evidence that, beyond a reasonable historical doubt, the words of Jesus identifying the bread with his body and the wine with his blood go back to the eyewitness testimony of the apostles who reclined with Jesus at table on that night. [...] Moreover, this confirmation of the eyewitness origins of the account of the Last Supper in the canonical gospels (considered alongside the coherence of 1 Cor 15:1–11 with the narrative of Jesus’s death and resurrection in these same gospels) strongly suggests that the narrative of Jesus’s deeds and teaching in the Gospels as a whole has its origins in the eyewitnesses’ testimony of the apostles [along with what has been considered above]."
(James P. Ware, Paul’s Theology in Context, Eerdmans, 2019, p. 269-270)
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External Evidence

1) Matthew & Luke (75-95 C.E.)
Hengel writes on page 48 (Studies):
There are yet other reasons for supposing that Petrine authority stands behind the Gospel of Mark.
(1) Mark’s work was used by the historian Luke and also by Matthew, so self-consciously a Christian scribe, in a quite natural way as a guideline. The fidelity with which Matthew reproduces the whole of his Marcan model is particularly striking.
(2) The best explanation of the fact that Mark lived on in the church, although Matthew had taken over about ninety per cent of the material in it, is that the work of Mark was from the beginning bound up with the authority of the name of Peter.
Luke's preface is also important. It's more so the kind of preface historians wrote and shows that Luke is more keen to present his work in the way that literary historians did (see Sean Adams, "Luke's Preface and its Relationship to Greek Historiography: A Response to Loveday Alexander" [2006]). If we take seriously what he says about his sources, he must have considered Mark a good means of access to eyewitness testimony.

2) 1 Peter 5:13 (~85 C.E.)
our sister church in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greetings; and so does my son Mark.
The Presbyter John, Papias' informant, may be independent of 1 Peter, which associated Mark with Peter. Adela Y. Collins notes:
Given the common, and probably independent, association of the man with Peter, it is likely that Papias and 1Peter refer to the same person named Mark.
(Adela Yarbro Collins, Mark: A Commentary, Hermeneia, 2007, p. 4)

3) Papias of Hierapolis (95-109 C.E.) & the Presbyter John (70/80-100 C.E.)
Davies and Allison in their Commentary on Matthew (ICC) questions the dismissal of Papias:
In the light of the general considerations adduced and of the work of Kennedy and Kürzinger, the simplistic understanding of Papias which dismisses him out of hand must be questioned if not abandoned.
(Davies and Allison, Matthew, ICC, pp. 16)
So let's question, shall we?
Papias' statements about Mark seems to fit Mark as we have it today. First of all, Papias' critical judgement that "Mark was out of order is similar to Dionysius of Halicarnassus' criticism that Thucydides' history was not in order because it did not begin and end properly (On Thucydides 10; cf. Lucian, True History 47f). Mark does not begin with the recommended topics of birth and ancestry (cf. Theon, Progymnasmaia 8), and it ends abruptly at Mark 16:8. Matthew and Luke also made many linguistic and stylistic improvements on Mark..." (David E. Aune, The New Testament in its Literary Environment, 1987, p. 65-66)
As Hengel writes, Papias complaint that Mark was out of order "does not in fact relate to the literary arrangement, which in the Second Gospel is faultless, but to the historical and chronological arrangement of the material" (Studies in the Gospel of Mark, p. 48)
Second of all, the work of Mark does, in large part, seem like a bunch of anecdotes or little more than such. E.P Sanders & Margaret Davies, Studying the Synoptic Gospels, p. 20 sums it up this point nicely:
The material (in Mark) consists of a series of episodes which concentrates on teaching, disputes and miracles. Only the last week of Jesus’ life appears anything like a connected narrative
Norman Perrin’s What Is Redaction Criticism? claims that the passion narrative in Mark is the most organized, with much of the rest being anecdotes. Eta Linnemann, however, sees the PN as a collection of anecdotes.
One must keep the possibility open that there was an earlier draft of Mark, as Delbert Burkett argues in his book "The Case for Proto-Mark" (2018). The reconstructed draft of Mark would look more like the Gospel of Thomas in structure, in that it was a collection of unconnected chreia.

3.1) Why should we trust Papias?
Papias seems to have historiographical practices in the back of his mind, his tradition seems to be direct from an eyewitness of Jesus, his comments about Mark are very modest, if not even critical, and his location are all relevant to this question.

"Wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered".
Where is Peter's supervision establishing a complete 2nd hand apostolic connection? Papias later on also says:
" Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them
Further severing the direct 2nd hand connection.

"It was not, however, in exact order"
"The remark that it is “not in order” implies that it does not measure up to Papias’ standard of what a Gospel should be; nevertheless, he defends it" (Adela Y. Collins. Mark, Hermeneia, p. 4).

"For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him."
Here he is saying Mark is not an eyewitness. It makes little sense to stress such a thing if Papias wasn't interested in genuine tradition. This is more weighty than it appears though, because as Joel Marcus points out on page 18 of his Anchor Yale Bible commentary on Mark 1-8:
Acts 13:13 relates that Mark abandoned Paul for some unknown reason in the middle of a missionary journey, and 15:36-41 describes this desertion as the cause of a subsequent quarrel between Paul and Barnabas, who may have been Mark’s cousin (cf. Col 4:10). Barnabas wanted to take Mark along with them on a later mission, but Paul, because of the earlier experience, refused, and the two missionaries therefore parted acrimoniously.
With this considered, it would not only be appropriate to explicitly say Peter okay'd Mark's work, but it would also be most appropriate to just name the Gospel after Peter himself.
All of this suggest that Papias did not have apologetic interests, or, at least, that was not his primary interest. Adela Y. Collins, citing Hengel, rejects Papian invention of Mark's relation with Peter on these grounds of Papias being critical of Mark in her Hermeneia commentary on Mark, p. 4. Jeff Jay (Mohr Siebeck, 2014, p. 180) likewise finds Hengel's arguments convincing.

If, then, any one who had attended on the elders came, I asked minutely after their sayings,--what Andrew or Peter said, or what was said by Philip, or by Thomas, or by James, or by John, or by Matthew, or by any other of the Lord's disciples: which things Aristion and the presbyter John, the disciples of the Lord, say.
Notice the difference between what the members of the 12 said, and what the Elder John and Aristion, disciples of the Lord, still say. Notice also how the members of the twelve are called "disciples of the Lord," just like Aristion and the Presbyter John, as if to equate their authority and eyewitness status.
Irenaeus claims that Papias knew the apostle who leaned on "the bosom of Christ" first hand, and Eusebius contradicts himself when he separates Papias from the elder John, since he also says that Papias asserts that he heard the Presbyter John in person:
Papias [...] moreover asserts that he heard in person Aristion and the presbyter John. Accordingly he mentions them frequently by name, and in his writings gives their traditions.
The context Eusebius cites suggests that this is the same Presbyter John that was spoken of in his preface:
He moreover hands down, in his own writing, other narratives given by the previously mentioned Aristion of the Lord's sayings, and the traditions of the presbyter John. For information on these points, we can merely refer our readers to the books themselves; but now, to the extracts already made, we shall add, as being a matter of primary importance, a tradition regarding Mark who wrote the Gospel, which he [Papias] has given in the following words]: And the presbyter said this. Mark having become the interpreter of Peter...
http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/papias.htm
This point about Papias' source can hardly be overstated.

David E Aune raised the possibility that Papias thought of himself as a historian:
Papias reflects a considerable degree of rhetorical sophistication (Kürzinger 1983: 43-67; Black 1989: 31-41), and suggests that he thought of himself as a historian (Aune 1978: 79-82; 1987: 66-67).
(David E. Aune, 'Prolegomena to the Study of Oral Traditions in the Hellenistic World', in Henry Wansborough (ed.), Jesus and the Oral Gospel Tradition (JSNTSup 64; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991), p. 81).
Hengel notes that:
"The positive statements, that as far as Mark remembered the teaching of Peter he set this down on paper ἀκριβῶς, and that he took trouble not to leave out or falsify anything that he had heard, are conventional in character: similar formulae appear almost as stereotypes in the prologues of historians.1
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1 For its frequency see e.g. also Plutarch, Lycurgus, 6.4; 13.2; 25.4; Theopompus, FGrHist 115 T 31 = Photius bibl. 176 p.121a 35; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Thuc. 5 (LCL Vol. 465, p.472) and 8 (p.478), on Thucydides: πλείστην ἐποιήσατο πρόνοιαν, οὔτε προστιθεὶς τοῖς πράγμασιν οὐδὲν ὃ μὴ δίκαιον οὔτε ἀφαιρῶν, οὐδὲ ἐνεξουσιάζων τῇ γραφῇ.
(Martin Hengel, Studies in the Gospel of Mark, p. 49)
Furthermore, Papias' criticism that Mark was not in order "was a rhetorical term meaning "not artistically arranged." Portions of the historical preface of Papias' work survive complete with references to sources and method in accordance with historiographal convention (Eusebius, Church History, 3.39-2-4; 15; note the formal parallels with Luke 1:1-4). The reveals Papias' familiarity with the rhetorical conventions of Hellenistic historiography. His explicit preference for oral over written tradition (Eusebius, Church History, 3.39.3-4) typifies ancient historians from Herodotus to Plutarch (cf. Plutarch, Demosthenes 2.1)." (David E. Aune, The New Testament in Its Literary Environment, 1987, p. 67)
See this article for more on this (2014): https://www.jstor.org/stable/43665438?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

We should also note the relevance of his geographical location in Hierapolis. Vernon Bartlet explains:
Hierapolis, of which he became “bishop” or chief local pastor, stood at the meeting-point of two great roads: one running east and west, between Antioch in Syria and Ephesus, the chief city of “Asia,” the other south-east to Attalia in Pamphylia and north-west to Smyrna. There Papias was almost uniquely placed for collecting traditions coming direct from the original home of the Gospel both before his own day and during it, as well as from Palestinian Christian leaders settled in Asia (a great centre of the Jewish Dispersion).
(V. Bartlet, “‘Papias’ ‘Exposition’: it’s date and contents, p. 16-17: 20-22)

4) Irenaeus (175-185 C.E.)
Irenaeus' report of Mark writing after Peter's death (as per the vast majority of scholarship) makes him a very relevant source, despite his lateness (especially if we are to trust his hearing of Polycarp). Indeed, it seems like a huge coincidence, at the very least, that contemporary critical scholarship places Mark's composition around 70 C.E., with Peter's death around 64-68 C.E., cohering with Irenaeus' report of Mark being written after Peter's death perfectly.
Some call into question Peter's death in Rome during the Neronic persecution, but not for very good reasons. There is ample independent evidence of Peter's execution in Rome during the Neronic persecution around 64-68 C.E.:

4.1) 1 Clement (90-100 C.E.)
1 Clement indicates that Peter was martyred. Timothy Barnes writes: "The letter [then] continues by describing the deaths of numerous others besides Peter and Paul who are presented as having perished with them:
Because of jealousy women were persecuted as Danaids and Dircae and suffered terrible and unholy indignities. But they confidently completed the race of faith and, though weak in body, received a noble reward.
The reference to “Danaids and Dircae” (Δαναΐδες καὶ Διρκαί) has appeared so puzzling to many scholars that it has sometimes been emended away. [...] The problematic words have now been explained by Edward Champlin as conveying a specific allusion to Nero’s “fatal charades” (Champlin, Nero, pp. 123–25). Why Danaids? Because the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, dedicated in 28 bce, had been destroyed in the fire of Rome, and the portico surrounding the sacred area in front of the temple contained statues of the fifty mythical daughters of King Danaus. Why Dircae? The mythical Dirce, wife of the king of Thebes, was tied by her hair to a bull, which then trampled and gored her to death. One of the buildings burned down in 64 was the amphitheater in the Campus Martius built by Statilius Taurus in 26 bce, known as the amphitheater of Taurus or the amphitheater of the Bull (Cassius Dio 62.18.2).
The Letter of the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth thus states [...] that both Peter and many women perished in Nero’s entertainments in 64."
(Timothy D. Barnes, "Another Shall Gird Thee," in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond, Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 91-92).

4.2) John 21:18-19 (90-100 C.E.)
"The allusion to Peter’s execution in John’s Gospel cannot refer to a death by crucifixion because it states that Peter died clothed, not naked. The allusion dovetails perfectly with what Tacitus reports about the emperor Nero’s execution of Christians in Rome in the year 64." (Barnes: p. 80). See p. 77-86 for more on this point.

4.3) The Ascension of Isaiah ("End of the First Century")
Timothy Barnes writes: "The Ascension of Isaiah [...] contains a passage in which the Old Testament prophet Isaiah predicts that one of Jesus' twelve original disciples will be killed by Nero:
Now, therefore, Hezekiah and Josab my son, these are the days of the completion of the world. And after it is completed, Beliar will descend, the great ruler, the king of this world, which he has ruled ever since it existed. He will descend from his firmament in the form of a man, a lawless emperor, a matricide—this is the king of this world—and he will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles of the Beloved will have planted, and one of the Twelve will be delivered into his hands. This ruler will come in the form of that emperor, and with him will come all the powers of this world, and they will obey him in all that he desires. (4.1-4)
Barnes writes: "The reference to Nero is clear, and Champlin’s discussion of Nero’s posthumous reputation duly quotes the passage. No Roman emperor other than Nero killed his mother, still less was any other Roman emperor famous precisely for killing his mother. Moreover, this passage of the Ascension of Isaiah not only alludes to Nero’s persecution of the Christians of Rome in 64 but also reflects the belief, widespread in the East in the decades after his death in 68, that Nero would reappear on earth restored to life again and usher in the end of the world. Historical considerations, including this allusion to Nero redivivus, indicate a date “about the end of the first century” for the composition of this section of the work (3.13–4.22). Peter is the obvious and inevitable candidate." (Barnes: p. 92-93)

4.4) The Apocalypse of Peter (80-135 C.E.)
Look Peter, I have manifested to you and expounded all this [after the last judgement after the destruction of the world]. And go into the city that rules over the west and drink the cup that I promised you at the hand of the son of the one who is in Hades, so that his destruction may have a beginning and you, the receiver of the promise... (14:4-6)
Barnes writes: "Presumably, "the son of the one who is in Hades" means "the son of the devil" and denotes Nero. More significant, the passage alludes to Jesus' private prayer in the garden of Gethsemane that the cup be taken from him (Mark 13:36, 39), so that "the cup that I promised you" must refer to the future death of Peter: Peter will go to Rome, the "city that rules over the west," where he will drink the cup promised to him by Jesus; that is, he will be executed as a follower of Christ" (Barnes: p. 94-95)

4.5) A Petrine shrine dating around 160 C.E. in Vatican hill
Barnes writes: "There is ample archaeological, liturgical, and literary evidence for a cult of Peter on the Vatican Hill from the second half of the second century onward. From this varied evidence it is clear that the Christians of Rome a century after Peter’s death firmly believed that Peter had died in Rome, since a shrine was built around 160 on the Vatican Hill over the place where either Peter’s body or at least some relic of Peter was believed to be." (Barnes: p. 88).

Summary of Irenaeus: Evidence has it that Peter died around 64-68 C.E. Irenaeus very likely claims that Mark wrote after Peter died. Critical scholarship has confirmed indeed that Mark was written fairly shortly after Peter's death (~70 C.E.). Thus, the coherence of Irenaeus' tradition to the conclusions of critical scholarship regarding Mark makes him reliable on this specific Gospel, in spite of his date. This accuracy probably indicates that Irenaeus draws upon independent tradition.
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Objections

Objection #1: Peter in Mark
According to Michael J. Kok:
"Scholars too excuse the texts where the Twelve come across in a less than flattering light, such as their constant misunderstandings (4:13, 40-41; 6:51-52; 7:17-18; 8:4, 14-21, 31-33; 9:10, 32-34, 38-41; 10:35-45; 14:4-5), the bold request of James and John for seats of honor (10:35-40), the rebuke of Peter as the mouthpiece of Satan (8:33), or Peter’s threefold denials (14:66-72), by crediting it as a testament to apostolic humility.
[...]
The problem is that Mark does not just document the Twelve’s occasional foibles. Their extraordinary powers of incomprehension—worrying over bread after Jesus miraculously multiplied it twice (8:16-21) or caught off-guard in Gethsemane despite three straightforward passion predictions (8:31-32; 9:31-32; 10:32-34)—goes beyond reasonable miscommunication and borders on parody. Their lapses in judgment are retained in Synoptic parallels (Matt 16:5-12; Matt 16:21-22; Matt 17:22-23/Luke 9:44-45; Matt 20:17-23/Luke 18:31-34), but Mark alone has their hearts collectively hardened (6:52; 8:17) like Pharaoh (Exod 7:3, 13-14, 22; 8:19; 9:12, 35; 10:20, 27; 11:10; 14:4) or Jesus’ foes (Mark 3:5). Peter’s denials are not suppressed, but Matthew 16:17-19, Luke 22:32, and the Johannine epilogue (21:15-19) balance it out by explicitly re-affirming Peter’s leadership of the post-Easter community.
[...]
At any rate, Peter, the Twelve, and the family of Jesus are all represented ambivalently in the narrative and it is hard to imagine that its author worked at the behest of one of the Jerusalem Pillars.
(Michael J. Kok, The Gospel on the Margins, 2015, kindle location 1442-1476)
Joel Marcus likewise rejects Mark for it's "anti-petrine" stance.
Perhaps Kok will also favor us with another book, First Corinthians on the Margins, where he shows that this letter could not have likely been written by Paul, because of its strong anti-Pauline polemic (his "weakness and fear and great trembling," 2:4, "the least of the apostles," 15:9, etc.). Why does Paul talk this way? He highlights his own weakness, in order to glorify the transforming power and grace of God (see 2 Corinthians 10-13). Does Kok not know about the revolutionary Christian conception of humility, and the Christian conception that "he who boasts must boast in the Lord"? This is why the portrayal of Peter in Mark is one more evidence that the basis of Mark is the eyewitness account of Peter (see "Peter in Mark" at the top of the post). Only Peter would recount the events in this unvarnished way. We should be very weary of retrojecting our modern conception of what is "beyond reasonable miscommunication and borders on parody" onto theirs.
Furthermore, many of the passages cited by Kok don't really paint a picture of the Evangelist portraying Peter (or the disciples) as negative. In fact, the Evangelist may be attempting to do the opposite for Peter specifically (see "Conclusion of Objection #1").

- Mark 8:33
John R. Markley writes: "Fourth Ezra may provide a helpful analogy for understanding Peter's rebuke of Jesus, and Jesus' subsequent rebuke of Peter. In this apocalypse, Ezra questions whether God is just since the righteous suffer at the hands of the unrighteous. Occasionally, Ezra presumes to possess a point of view that is superior to the one represented by his angelic mediator, Uriel. For this reason, Uriel takes a biting tone with Ezra at points. He claims that a human like Ezra cannot understand the ways of God (4 Ezra 4:2, 10-11, 21; 5:35-37, 40); he questions whether Ezra believes that he loves Israel more than God does (5:33; cf. 4:34; 8:47a); and he is critical of Ezra for considering the present rather than what is yet to come (7:15). When Ezra queries whether if the fate of the wicked is just, Uriel sharply rebukes him: You are not a better judge than God, or wiser than the Most High!" (7:19). Uriel's antagonistic tone must be interpreted against the backdrop of the glowing statements made about Ezra elsewhere in the apocalypse (e.g. 6:32-33; 7:67-77; 8:47b--54; 10:38-40. 55-58; 13:53-56), the direct comparison of him with Moses (14:1-6, 37-48), and his removal from the earth before death (14:9). In light of these, it does not seem likely that the apocalypse reflects an antagonistic or ambivalent of Ezra himself; rather, it seems that Uriel's tone is directed towards Ezra's human point of view, which is fundamentally different from the divine point of view that is required to grapple faithfully with the problems with gentile hegemony, sin, and divine justice.
Ezra's human perspective is continually contrasted with the divine perspective that the angel Uriel discloses, much like Peter's rebuke of Jesus' passion prediction is designed to sharply contrast his human perspective with the divine perspective Jesus discloses. Indeed, just as the angle Uriel criticized Ezra's limited human perspective, Jesus says that Peter is thinking "human things," rather than "divine things.
The main purpose of this episode, therefore, is probably not to use Peter as an example of faulty discipleship. Instead, Peter performs the somewhat stereotyped function of a seer, who voices the human perspective that the divine revelation is designed to correct"
(John R. Markley, "Reassessing Peter's Imperception in Synoptic Traditions" in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond , Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 107-108)
This analysis fits in very nicely with Hengel's point of view above.

- The Failure of Peter and the Disciples to Understand (i.e. Mark 9:5-6; 7:17; 10:35-45; 14:4-5, etc)
The failure to understand is a "motif that is common in apocalyptic literature: human imperception in the face of divinely revealed mysteries. In apocalyptic texts, human seers are regularly portrayed as being profoundly confused by the otherworldly realities they observe during visions are epiphanies. The venerable figure of Daniel, for example, cannot perceive the significance of his visions apart from divine explanation, despite his unrivaled qualities of wisdom and understanding. In Daniel 8:27, after Daniel has received an explanation of his vision, he comments that he did not understand it. Similarly, following the historical review of chapters 10-12, Daniel says "I heard but could not understand" (12:8). Daniel is therefore portrayed as expressing confusion and imperception when confronted with eschatological mysteries revealed to him, but there is no indication that his confusion is designed to reflect negativity on him. It merely plays into the duality between God's plan for the righteous, expressed as otherworldly mysteries, and the ability of finite human such as Daniel to grasp this ominous plan." (Markley: p. 107)
Markley also goes over similar confusion texts in 4 Ezra (cf. 10:30, 35, etc), whereby the seer is confused by divine mysteries, and more in his book Peter - Apocalyptic Seer, p. 78-113.

- The Gospel of Mark Leaves Peter Unredeemed
But this is just false. First of all, even Michael J. Kok thinks that Mark hints at Peter's reconciliation when he says:
If not for the hints of reconciliation at 14:28 and 16:7, the last time the Twelve appear in the narrative is on a note of their utter failure. (Kindle location 1468)
Furthermore, "the reference to Peter's weeping [Mark 14:72] to some extent cancels his previous behavior as it indicates his repentance and therefore his re-acceptance" (Ernest Best, Peter in the Gospel According to Mark, JSTOR, 1978, p. 554).
Lastly, the silence of the women (potentially leaving Peter unredeemed by reason of the angelic message not reaching Peter) is moot, as Adela Y. Collins writes:
Their silence is a result of their being struck with awe at the extraordinary events. The tension between the commission given the women by the angel in v. 7* and the silence of the women in v. 8* is due to the depiction of the overwhelming effect of the overall experience on the women. The text does not address the question whether the women eventually gave the disciples and Peter the message. It focuses rather on the numinous and shocking character of the event of Jesus’ resurrection from the dead..
(Adela Y. Collins, Mark: A Commentary, Hermeneia, 2007, p. 799)
Ernest Best thinks Mark 16:7 was sufficient, apart from Peter's weeping, for Peter's reconciliation (see "Conclusion to Objection #1"), especially considering that Mark 16:7 seems redactional.

- Conclusion to Objection #1
Ernest Best looks at Markan redactional tendencies from the tradition the Evangelist held, and actually concludes that the Markan author smoothed over the tradition which held Peter's failures! It may just be that our Marcus was a bit uncomfortable with Peter's humility he displayed in his tradition. Best concludes:
Where Peter appears in the tradition in a bad light Mark normally lifts the strain off him by associating other disciples with him; the only exception is the story of the denial where Mark may have increased the amount of material about him, perhaps turning the single denial into a threefold; but it is by no means clear that he did this in order to vilify Peter, since he probably also emphasized the flight of all the disciples. There may also be another factor: Peter's failure may be heightened in order to bring out the contrast in behavior to Jesus. Where Mark has himself introduced Peter he either presents him in a good light or, at least, neutrally; if the reference in 16:7 is Markan then this is an obvious attempt to correct the impression left by the denial. Thus there is no reason to conclude that Mark was attacking the historical Peter.
More generally, to ask the question about Mark's treatment of Peter may imply a view of Mark's purpose as ultimately biographical. But Mark does not set out to tell his community about Peter for Peter's sake but for the sake of the community. Failure occasioned by pressure from outside the community must have been all too common; if Peter's failure was eliminated he could not be seen as the proto-penitent
(Ernest Best, Peter in the Gospel According to Mark, JSTOR, 1978, p. 557-558)
And finally, Helen K. Bond writes:
The figure of Peter has been a favorite topic in many recent literary studies of Mark’s Gospel, with the prevailing opinion nowadays suggesting that the evangelist is not really so negative toward Jesus’ closest disciple as an earlier generation might have supposed.
(Helen K. Bond, "Was Peter behind Mark’s Gospel?" in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 49)

Objection #2:
According to Michael J. Kok, Papias does not seem to have historiographical tendenciesd (partially) because:
"Papias relates extravagant details about the grotesque death of Judas, a resuscitation of a corpse in his own day, and the miraculous drinking of poison with no ill effects (Hist. Eccl. 3.39.9) that Lucian would detest as myths." (The Gospel on the Margins, 2015, Kindle Location 1360)
Papias also records a tale about John the disciple speaking about "the days [...] in which vines shall grow, having each ten thousand branches, and in each branch ten thousand twigs, and in each true twig ten thousand shoots, and in every one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on every one of the clusters ten thousand grapes [...] And when any one of the saints shall lay hold of a cluster, another shall cry out, 'I am a better cluster, take me.'"
The talking grape is prophetic hyperbole. It’s not much different than a camel going through the eye or a needle, or straining a gnat and swallowing a camel, or a Jesus saying: "if they were quiet, the very stones would cry out." Talking stones! I don't see how this affects Papias' reliability.
Regarding Judas, what Papias actually wrote is a problem, because there is more than one version of what he said. But the blowing up business isn’t really any different than Acts 1, is it? Acts 1:18: he burst open in the middle. The weird part is the bloating. It does sound like a legend to me. It was just someone’s way of making Judas look horrible. It's not like he cites a source for this "tradition" like he does with Mark, and as we saw that the informant regarding Mark was an eyewitness of Jesus.
An ingestion of snake poison with no ill effects is also recorded in Acts, and Luke-Acts almost certainly is following historiographical practices (just look at his preface, for instance).
Luke also records the resuscitation of a corpse. Note also that Papias' source for the resuscitation of a corpse was different than that of Mark's Gospel. We should not put all of Papias' traditions under one blanket.

Objection #3:
Why doesn't Mark just say that Peter was his source? Many respected historians relayed their eyewitness sources in their writings.
These are accomplished literary writers we are talking about here. Mark writes on a much more popular style (see E.P Sanders' Studying the Synoptic Gospels) than many of the respected historians whose works have seen survived today. Unfortunately we don't have much in the way of biographies that belong to the same popular literary level as our Gospels, because what got preserved of ancient literature was the stuff that people most admired as literary works.
As noted by Adela Y. Collins in her Hermeneia commentary on Mark (p. 524), Mark was meant to be read aloud. For the author of Mark to say that Peter was his source, Mark would have to speak in the first person directly addressing his readers. This interrupts the flow of narrative and intrudes into the reader's experience of the narrative.
Luke's preface is also important, as pointed out above.

Objection #4:
Joel Marcus rejects a link with Peter. One reason is that Mark does not appear to be any closer to Peter than the other evangelists and that Mark's passages lack the kind of detail one would expect from the reminiscences of an eyewitness. He writes:
"If, for example, the first Markan narrative that features Peter, the story of his call in 1:16–18, were a genuine personal reminiscence, we should expect more details, such as an explanation of what it was about Jesus that made Peter and Andrew drop everything to follow him." (Mark 1-8, p. 23)
"This, however, is to confuse a “genuine reminiscence” (in the sense of an event told for its own sake) with a story retold as part of an ancient bios. Peter may well have had a clear recollection of the first time he set eyes on Jesus, of the tremendous impact it made on him. Perhaps he remembered other strange, inconsequential details as we sometimes do in connection with important events—but none of these details would have been relevant to Mark’s biographical enterprise. The evangelist was not interested in supplying his audience with details of Peter’s own call experience, but in raising the call to discipleship to a level of abstraction that would include his audience, and emphasizing to them (whatever Peter’s own call experience might have been like) that following Jesus required immediate and wholehearted commitment. The Gospel is not a biography of Peter, but of Jesus. Thus inconsequential details concerning Peter would simply be out of place."
(Helen K. Bond, "Was Peter behind Mark’s Gospel?" in Peter in Early Christianity, edited by Helen K. Bond Larry W. Hurtado, 2015, p. 56)

Helen K. Bond holds to a Petrine connection with our gMark (Ibid, 61),
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2020.10.08 23:14 Fallout3boi Post on leather helmet variations.

Hello, I've not got a pic today, so I thought I share about some of the variations of leather helmets. Now this is all stuff I've researched by myself and will probably have some errors since I don't know of any books that cover variations of helmets. Personally I find researching about leathers interesting so that's what I really like to read about.
1st Variation. The High eagle helmet. This variation of popular between roughly 1825 to sometime in the 1920s. The two makers I personally have "Seen"(I have a love hate relationship with Ebay) is Cairns and Bros and the John Olsen co. They are called High Eagle helmets because of their distinctive 8" high brass eagle that the helmets came with. From the stories that I've read, the helmet had such a tall eagle was if the wearer took a impact the eagle would fold up and hopefully protect the wearer a little. While I can't speak to the effectiveness of this early attempt at a impact cap, I can only assume it wasn't too effective as they removed in the 1920's.The helmet came in several variations- at least from Cairns. I've only seen 1 variation of the John Olsen helmet, the classic 8 comb style that still around today. Cairns on the other hand, I have seen a 8 comb and a 64 comb helmet, but I've heard about a 4,12, and 16 comb variations! Although the high eagle helmet ended production in favor of the 6 inch eagle, Cairns has made parade/presentation helmets, a helmet to commemorate the merger of Cairns/MSA, and a helmet that someone called the Cairns factory that all had high eagles. Earlier variations of these helmets had Cast Iron(I think) roundels and later ones had roundel similar to the later 5A's. While I don't picture's of these roundel's West Coast Fire Helmets EarlyLater while not perfect they're close to what the originals looked like and it is possible that there's a third variation out there. Liners probably are many different materials, I've seen possibly wool ones, some sort of cloth, and possibly a softer leather.
2nd Variation:Transitional eagles. At some point in the late 1920's helmets transitioned from 8" to 6" inch eagles. Now Transitional eagles is not the "collecting term" it's just what I call them. I don't know why Cairns and the John Olsen company would switch, but it could do with cost as I assume those eagles would not be as cheap as the 6 inch model. As a side note, the John Olson company wouldn't be around for very much longer. According to the New Yorker of June 14th, 1930 the John Olson company had recently merged with Cairns ending a fire helmet company that had been around since 1867. Any ways back to the story. Cairns transitional Eagles are easy to spot because they look like High Eagles but use 6 inch fronts and are obviously shorter. While I don't know if the John Olson company had a transitional eagle I have seen some 6 inch eagles that I suspect came from the Olson side rather than Cairns. That doesn't mean that Cairns couldn't have used a second kind of eagle so as I find more information that may change.
3rd Variation: The 5A New Yorker before WW2. While the 5A New Yorker got it's name at some point sometime in the late 1800's, this variation is what people think of when you say "New Yorker" in this variation Retro Brass is introduced. The big difference between is transitional helmet and what I call a New Yorker is that retro brass and a new type of roundel. All of the ones from the 30's will be made in New York, and have liners of variable materials.
4th variation War Babies. The story of the war babies is a bit of strange one that is possibly a apocryphal one, the story goes that during WW2 Cairns only sold 4 comb leather's with no brass as a way to preserve materials for the war efforts. While I have no doubt that Cairns made 4 combs during the war, 4 comb leather's would continue to be sold till at least the 1970 catalog year-including variations of the helmets with brass. And I suspect they were sold before that, making in hard to tell if it is a actual war baby. In order for there to be any chance of it being a war baby, it has to be made in New York, Cairns didn't move to Clifton New Jersey until after the war making it impossible for war baby to made there. A lot of what I just wrote could very well be wrong, as it's based on information I've researched.
5th Variation: The 5A after the war. From what most sources say, Cairns moved to Clifton,New Jersey in 1947. The big difference between a pre-war and a post-war 5A is the roundel, early ones will be have not letter code.Both Variations are here;I'll get to those later. Helmets in this variation can come with flaps, but more often then not they don't have them. In 1966 Bourkes would be introduced, but a helmet with them doesn't mean it was made post '66 as it was(and still is) common to put them on afterwards. Side note: the inventor of Bourkes, Lester T. Bourke passed away in August this year, may god rest his soul. The NYC Fire Museum has a great write up on the how,when, and where on how Bourkes were created. Back to the helmets, Brass will be the same except if it's a Boston helmet. The Boston Hose shop actually had their own brass that they put on helmets up until the 80's. As far as I know they're the only ones that had their own brass, but there could be more.
6th Variation: Early N5A New YorkeN6A1 Sam Houston. In 1980 OSHA and NFPA changed their ruling on fire helmet and made helmets have impact protection but they would not get impact caps until 1984.The N5A is only OSHA approved while the N6a1 was NFPA approved. Early N5A's will have brown impact caps ,later it would turn into black, and the N6A1 will have a gray impact cap. N5A won't have a ratchet until the late 90's when Cairns gets acquired by MSA in the late 90's, while the N6A1 would have both. Late N6A1s from about 1993 till the introduction of the N6A at some point will have ratchets. There's a lot of confusion out there about about N6A1, so take a lot the story of it with a grain of salt. Both helmets have retro brass until about 1998 when Cairns is taken over by MSA. These helmets will have two different kinds of tetrahedrons. Early one's will have "Slime Lime" tets, these are solid Lime Yellow reflexite, they have pointed corner's, are in a lower position, and are slightly larger than the latter ones. After 1995 they turn into the ones you see today. They also introduced front posts in this generation of helmet, for those who don't know, the original 5As held their shields in place by a sort of coder pin that held the shield. While Cairns no longer makes leathers like this, the spirit lives on through Capital City Fire Helmets/Rag top Ind..
7th Variation: The Modern leather. This Variation is the exact one that you'll get if you order one off of the Fire Store right now, Features Stamped brass/carved eagle, modern tets, a ratchet, and a new factory bend. I personally don't like what they're doing but I can't change them.
Sub Variations: While the 8 comb was and is the most variation of the leather there was a 4, 12 16, and 32 comb up until the 80s or so but it appears the 64 comb was phased out after the High Eagles. The easy way to tell the number of combs is look at the four big combs then count the numbe in between them. A 4 comb will have none, a 8 comb will have 1, a 12 comb will have to 2, and a 16 comb will have 3.
The 309 "Volunteer" model. At some point Cairns started offering what's called the "Volunteer" model. It has a smaller brim and was designed for smaller volunteer departments who couldn't afford the 5A.
Extra Info:
Letter codes: At some point after Cairns moved to New Jersey they introduced a letter code system. Since I'm probably going to get questions, I have no idea how the date code worked when it started, how often it changed, etc... Different people say different things, I've heard that it started in 1947 and I've seen it said that it started as late as 1965 so until I can find more information your out of luck. Edit 10/20/20: I have recently seen a "R" letter code with the date of "7-13-83", so if anyone finds a 1984 or 1982 helmet with a letter code we could figure out the when the code changed.
Retro Brass: On older helmets, the brass is different than on modern helmets.Here's a side by side comparison On modern helmets it's flat and doesn't grip the shield as well. It's designed to just drop in on any old helmet. On older helmets, it's arched and and grips the shield better. I can't explain why it does it, they just found a special sauce that makes it to where nothing can get in there. I mean even with a tin shield I can't even get a tissue in there. That doesn't mean it's perfect though, the older style brass does have to be custom fit to the helmets.
And that's it, I'll update this post as more information becomes available to me. Until then crack open a bear and give Barrett's Privatters a spin.
I'll see you at the big one, Thank you and good night.
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2020.10.06 22:14 BringATwenty Mormonism of today is like a glow stick, exposing it's hidden cracks makes the glow. 42 Reasons (Part 2 of 2)

  1. After the 8 year long revolutionary war ended in 1783, the "United States of America" still faltered countless times in the following decades. Easterly landlocked colonial territories outlined on paper as "States" could not come together as "One Nation". Different military's, militias, brotherhoods, factions, factions within factions, slavery and counterfeit money bred constant chaos. For many periods over those following decades attacks from Great Britain, Spain, France, Mexico and the warring Indian tribes they supplied meant the easterly landlocked territories were doomed to be conquered by one nation or another. (Even Russia had a trade presence on the west coast) Year in and year out, every day and every night, every primitive, easterly landlocked, colonial territory's survival was threatened. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
  2. The Nation needed to expand West to save Freedom but the unorganized military was spread too thin. Some settlers made progress with peaceful Native American tribes yet wagon trains of settlers who dared to venture West were still violently slaughtered by warring Indian tribes. Young, old, no one was spared. Stories of the violent massacres kept many settlers held up in the landlocked territories. Other's fled back to England. Still others came. (1) (2)
  3. The guiding hand of a centuries old Scottish Brotherhood can be seen throughout the USA's founding decades. Known founding fathers George Washington (1732-1799), Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), Paul Revere (1735-1818), John Hancock (1736-1793) and others were members of the Brotherhood's different factions within factions spread across the territories. Hidden history reveals so much more about these founding fathers than many know. For example, George Washington still owned 300 slaves upon his death. Paul Revere was a master of metals and an entrepreneur and his clients included the US Government (1) (2). Dynamic Oligarch, Governor, Inventor and swimmer Benjamin Franklin (1) (2) might one day go down in history as a colonial version of Bruce Wayne/Batman. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5))
  4. Faraway on the other side of the globe, during the same time the revolutionary war was going on, England's Captain James Cook, a global explorer and close associate of the Brotherhood, led the discovery of what would become Hawaii. He saw firsthand how polygamy could grow a nation quickly. Word of the native island people and their bounty of ancestral legends, ocean going stories and treasure traveled around the globe and throughout the Brotherhood's ranks on both sides of the Atlantic. Among the native's Cook and his crew were first revered as immortals but about a year later Cook was attacked and killed as an imposter. This did not phase other explorers and visitors. Travel by ship to the islands became so familiar during colonial times that when conquering Hawaiian King Kamehameha passed away his drunken son LihoLiho, who carried the King's title in name only, traded away a substantial portion of the island's treasures for a yacht built by a Salem, Massachusetts family prominent in seafaring, politics and the military (Crowninshield). After the yacht reached the islands in 1820 it was extensively and expensively remodeled under LihoLiho's orders. It suspiciously sank in a Kauai bay less than two years later and LihoLiho suspiciously died on a peculiar, ill fated trip to Great Britain in 1824. (1) (2) (3)
  5. In the failing US Territories of the late 1700's and early 1800's, patriotic leaders prayed and planned and searched for ways to save the failed Nation. Guidance was sought. Plans were constantly suggested and evaluated. Different members of the Brotherhood secretly suggested laying the foundation for a massive religious following built by polygamy to successfully pave the way West so the failed Nation could expand and be saved.
  6. During this critical time, at least 14 stories of different people having similar "religious" experiences popped up around the territories. None of them created a great following. (1)
  7. During the 34 years spanning 1787-1821, the US's first 24 easterly landlocked states were formed on paper. However, 61% of these states were formed during the first 16 years of that period. For the last 18 years of that period, the pace of forming states had come to a violent halt with only 7 being formed. The chaotic territory known on paper as the "USA" was on the doorstep of imminent failure and what would become a quarter century blight where only two more states would be formed on paper. (1821-1845) (1)
  8. That 1821-1845 time period coincidentally also covers 99.9% of the time that the published, foundational beginnings of "Mormonism" occurred. 1820 is the published year of Joseph Smith's First Vision. 1847 is the published year Brigham Young strategically ordered his west coast bound following to suddenly stop in Mexico Territory at an enormous salt filled lake smack dab in the center of the American continent's untamed West. Even though it was in Mexico Territory at the time, the location of this Great Salt Lake was perfectly centralized in the continent's West and could serve as the doorstep to how the West could be won. Over the next 20 years after Brigham Young's arrival an estimated 60,000-70,000 faithful pioneers would follow. Many were followers of Mormonism. Many practiced polygamy. Many would be sent in all direction of the West to faithfully colonize strategic territories and pave the way for the Nation's armies (1).
  9. For nearly 195 years, Mormonism has surreptitiously weaved historical claims about a man named "Martin Harris" (1783-1875). Mormonism claims Harris was a humble farmer who's greedy wife left him after he mortgaged their family farm to faithfully pay today's equivalent of hundreds of thousands of dollars for the first publishing of the boy Joseph Smith's "The Book of Mormon" and that shortly after that economic failure and other critical founding roles Harris lost faith in Mormonism but later rejoined Mormonism in Utah at the very end of his 92 year long life. (1)) (2) Hidden history reveals that these claims about Harris ARE EXACTLY HOW HE WANTED IT. The purveyors of Mormonism go to great lengths to perpetuate these myths about Harris even today. If you don't accept the boy "Joseph Smith" as a child prophet who grew into a man prophet, Harris' purveyors of Mormonism want you to hate Joseph Smith as an impossible genius-con artist-pedophile so you fail to see the truth of who Harris really was and what Harris really did.
  10. "History is written by the victor" and the past two centuries demonstrate that Harris definitely was the victor. This is because in reality Harris' "greedy wife" "Lucy" was actually his child cousin. Yes she was a child. Yes she was his first cousin. She was 15 and he was 25 when he forced her to marry him. Yet within Mormonism story after story leaves this critical detail out. Additionally for one reason or another Lucy became partially deaf over the next 20 years. There is also at least one report that in addition to sexually abusing this child Harris also physically abused her. This is an indication of Harris' proclivity to control children. Harris eventually fathered 6 children) through Lucy's nubile womb. 28 years later and after being physically separated from Harris for years, Lucy suspiciously died at the age of 42. Weeks later then 52 year old Harris married 21 year old Caroline Young. A niece of Brigham Young. He fathered 7 children through here nubile womb.
  11. Like the Crowninshield's and other influential families throughout critical parts of the chaotic New England territories, The Harris family was also wealthy, well connected and zealously patriotic. With his father Nathan Harris, and his brothers (Emer and Preserved) Martin controlled hundreds of productive acres in the Palmyra, New York region with complex operations producing a river of revenue from livestock and linen. Martin Harris' father Nathan Harris and mother Rhoda Lapham Harris originally moved the Harris family to the Palmyra, New York area in 1796, 20 years before the poverty stricken Smith's would arrive practically on Harris' doorstep. (1) (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)
  12. The white linen Martin produced was so exceptional that he won several awards for it. Since Mormonism's beginning days, the wearing of multiple layers of white clothing has been expected of followers. For decades manufacturing this clothing and selling it to followers has been a secret, multi-million dollar industry for Mormonism. The white clothing includes under garments for daily wear by males and females as well as outer garments for wear in private ceremonies. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black)
  13. Harris was a zealous patriot. At 29 years old, four years after forcing his child cousin to marry him, he began regularly leaving his life of power, wealth and marriage as a "Harris" to regularly fight during the 3 years of "The War of 1812". ( "The War of 1812" was actually "The War of 1812-1815".) Harris was recognized as a leader and an honored war veteran at war's end. As an honored war veteran, is it safe to suggest that he became familiar with killing in the name of patriotism as wars require of brave men and women (1) ?
  14. Harris was a convincing story teller. He once got people to donate money for what he claimed would be used to support the Christian Greeks fighting the Turks. He also claimed Jesus appeared to him in the form of a deer and walked with him for a couple miles. He also claimed an incident regarding a flickering candle was the work of the devil. (1) (2))
  15. After the War of 1812, the well respected, wealthy, influential, honored, 33 year old Martin Harris was nominated to be "Road Overseer" in the Palmyra region. A position he controlled for the next 7 years. This included the 7 years it took to finally construct New England's Eerie Canal.
  16. The dynamic Harris was an influential supporter of the Eerie Canal and it's possible route. Harris made sure the route passed by he and his father's lands. This would expand their river of cash and operations to the eastern territories in exponential ways. This river of cash would be used by many to finance business and patriotic endeavors in the failed Nation. (1) Prior to the Eerie Canal "New York" was way down on the list of in-demand territorial ports. Historical economist's acknowledge that the Eerie Canal made New York the leading port and global economic powerhouse that it has been for nearly two centuries.
  17. The boy Joseph Smith Jr. was born December 23, 1805. The poverty stricken Smith family relocated 8 times in the chaotic New England area during Joseph's Smith Jr.'s first 10 years. If they were in Europe they may have been referred to as "gypsys". With Great Britain's latest attack and eventual retreat underway after the War of 1812, the Smith family with it's many sons of working age moved to Palmyra in 1816 in search of work on the controversial, to be built "Eerie Canal". (To this day, published Mormon history acts as if the Eerie Canal doesn't exist.)
  18. During these colonial decades, almost 1 in 5 children did not survive their first year. The Smith family was no exception. Although some children are not listed here in 1816 the living and to-be-born members of Smith family included Joseph Smith Sr. (father, 45, d. 1840), Lucy Mack Smith (Mother, 41, d. 1856), Alvin Smith (son, 18, d. 1823), Hyrum Smith (son, 16, d. 1844), Sophronia (daughter, 13, d. 1876), Joseph Smith Jr. (son, 10, d. 1844), Samuel Smith (son, 8 d. 1844), William Smith (son, 5, d. 1894), Katherine Smith (daughter, 3, d. 1900), Don Carlos (son, newborn, d. 1841). Lucy Smith would be born 5 years later, d. 1882). Shortly after arriving in the Palmyra region, the poverty stricken, uneducated Smith family took over a primitive cabin less than 1 mile from Harris's lands that bordered the future route of Eerie Canal. This was the Smith family's 8th move in Joseph Smith Jr.'s 10 years. After moving so many times, they absolutely moved here to gain work on the Eerie Canal. This move would be the families last. Mother Lucy Smith would bury all but one Smith male during the first 25 years of Mormonism's beginnings. (1)
  19. Harris was 22 years older than Joseph Smith. As a well known, wealthy local and "Road Overseer" who regularly hired local boys and men to work on his own lands, Harris met the Smith family with it's many sons around 1816 when Smith's moved to Palmyra. Harris did not live within 1 mile of the Smith family for 8 or 10 years before meeting them as Mormon history weaves. Harris likely learned of the arrival of the Smith family within days of their arrival to Palmyra through longtime Palmyra residents including the resident who owned the tiny primitive cabin the large Smith family moved into. (For the Sum of $3000 By Susan Easton Black, map, page 6)
  20. Within published Mormonism there are also conflicting accounts spanning three violent chaotic colonial years when Martin Harris met "Joseph Smith". Some accounts claim it was 1824, some claim it was 1827. This would have been when Joseph Smith was 18...or 21. Another ignored, critical discrepancy. (1) (2)
  21. In the early 1800, as years of chaotic uncertainty unfolded, for one reason or another Harris appropriated the Brotherhood's patriotic goals for the Nation for himself. Among other things he knew of the other religious experiences told by others around the territories. (Harris would eventually become related by marriage to one of the story tellers). Harris saw that a young mans voice was needed for a following to catch on. For that, the powerful Harris chose a young many to be a voice of his own. This voice was that of 18 year old Alvin Smith). However, as Harris laid the ground work for his patriotic cause over the next 4 years, headstrong Alvin resisted. Because Hyrum was also older than 18 after those 4 years and like Alvin would have been privy to some of the Brotherhood's publishing's and ceremonies that Harris borrowed (or stole) from, Harris skipped choosing Hyrum as a potential "voice" and chose Joseph, the dynamic, naïve, uneducated, friendly, 14 year old boy who walked with a limp. This is now the year 1820 and is when the boy Joseph's published stories begin. 4 years later though, Alvin was engaged to be married and saw potential for the Smith's without their dependence on the Harris' for work. He began to interfere with the powerful Harris' grooming and temptations of the impressionable Joseph. With the fate of the Nation at stake and no more time to find another voice amid Joseph's waiverings growing ever more critical as he too approached the age of 18, the wealthy, zealous, altruistic, powerful, patriotic Harris ordered Alvin's murder . It was just four and a half weeks before Joseph's 18th birthday. After Alvin's death, Harris used threats towards other Smith family members to ensure Joseph would not waiver. Fearing for the rest of his family and now 3 year old little Lucy, and with no "911" to call and no one else to come to their aid, 17 year old Joseph and the rest of the Smith family would become Harris' emotional hostages for the next two decades. Just like Harris had done with his child cousin who he forced to marry him, Harris had gained control of the boy Joseph and the Smiths.
  22. The powerful Harris, his father and their faction, ("The Men Who Visit") continued freely catalyzing Mormonism and the Book of Mormon from the Brotherhood's materials. They also used materials from forced and unforced sources including authors of 6 previous publications (#3). In their zeal, with their power, influence and use of violence they were able to greatly reduce the prominence of the publications they borrowed and stole from.
  23. Mormonism's publishings indicate "The Book of Mormon" was originally a 30-60 pound heavy stack of gold plates discovered in a sealed box under a boulder and that the box also included a sword (The Sword of Laban), a spherical compass (The Liahona) and a breast plate with a pair of primitive glasses attached to it. Publishing's indicate that translation of the engraved writings on the plates occurred by Joseph Smith without him looking at the plates but instead by Joseph wearing the Urim and Thummim and iterating out loud the words that appeared to him. If he didn't want to use the plates, he could also use a black stone he had been led to. If he didn't want to use the black stone, he could use a white stone he already had. (1). A scribe who was either his first wife Emma, Martin Harris, David Whitmer or Oliver Cowdery. (2)
  24. Harris' reputation for being wealthy was well known enough that in 1833 he was sued and jailed for $1000 (what some would say is today's economic equivalent of $500,000) by a young woman for publicly saying she had a "bastard child". In that day women couldn't sue a man alone so the suit was brought by a male friend of the woman. Harris posted bail and left. The suit was quietly dismissed under the claim that the woman was already "scandalous" prior to her claims against the well known Harris. (Link available by download through google search "the imprisonment of Martin Harris").
  25. During the following years under Harris control, naive Joseph resisted at times. Joseph tried to break free at times. Joseph sought funding for his own militia. Joseph spoke in code to his militia. As a victim, out of survival or as an eventual participant, Joseph absolutely made mistakes.
  26. A city was built around Mormonism. Harris and his endless river of cash and connections from the Eerie Canal was never far away. Day by day Harris' barges on the Eerie Canal sent one fortune of goods after another to the eastern territories. At the port of New York, the empty barges were loaded with immigrants grateful to have some place inland to go. Stories of the American Bible gave them something to believe in. For one reason or another, many of these early male, female and child immigrants were from Scotland...
  27. Harris and his faction forced Joseph to claim that 24 different angels appeared to Joseph including Adam, Moses, Noah and other biblical characters.
  28. Harris' self-fulfilling prophecy involving patriotically well-connected aristocrats Charles Anthon, Luther Bradish and Samuel L. Mitchell. Note that Bradish was a literary agent of profound, well educated early American author James Fenimore Cooper. Cooper is the author of "The Leatherstocking Tales", "The Last of the Mohicans" and other known titles. Cooper was also a midshipman in the US Navy who was very familiar with the working of ocean vessels. Like Benjamin Franklin, Cooper was known for his intellect and occasionally mischievous creativity. (1) "The Book of Mormon" contains ocean going stories (1) (2). Like Harris, Bradish also fought in the "War of 1812". These are just a few of the critical circles of influence needed to catalyze something like "The Book of Mormon" and Mormonism and to see it through to fruition while minimizing and eliminating obstacles along the way. These are the kind of critical circles of influence that a naive, uneducated, poor, handicapped, gypsy boy from a new-to-the-neighborhood family just did not have.
  29. In 1844, with thousands of immigrant and American born followers spread across many New England territories and elsewhere, Harris secretly ordered Joseph to began preparations to lead Mormonism's followers from Nauvoo into the West to save the failed USA. Instead, the naive Joseph believed he could save the failed USA by becoming President of the USA himself. Believing he was finally too powerful for Harris to kill him, Joseph publicly announced his campaign for President of the USA. With no time to spare, the zealous, patriotic Harris immediately ordered the murder of Joseph Smith and two of his three remaining brothers. Within weeks of Joseph's presidential announcement Joseph and his older brother Hyrum were arrested and killed within days (June 27, 1844). With thousands of followers, his own militia and the bounties of an entire growing city at his fingertips, Joseph allowed himself to be arrested believing that he and Harris would reconcile. After Joseph and Hyrum's murder however, in an insidious taunt to other less heinous factions who's attempts failed to gain a following and to remove all obstacles at seeing his own faction's plans through, Harris ordered the murder of younger brother Samuel Smith 33 days later (July 30, 1844). The number 33 is significant within the Brotherhood. For one reason or another Harris spared the Smith females (Mother Lucy Mack, daughter's Sophronia, Katherine, Lucy) and the youngest living Smith son at the time William. In all, 6 Smith male family members including Alvin (murder), Joseph Smith Sr. (suspicious), Don Carlos (illness), Hyrum (murder), Joseph (murder) and Samuel (murder) died during the Lord's careful "Restoration of the Gospel".
  30. After Joseph's unbelievable, tragic and violent murder Mormonism split into multiple groups with several different leaders emerging. Some believed in polygamy some didn't. 1) Brigham eventually led the majority into the West. 2) Joseph's family and first wife Emma stayed in Nauvoo. 3) Other followers went to Philadelphia. 4) Others went on a ship to sail to the continent's west coast with Samuel Brannan (who pulled a page from Benjamin Franklin's book of propaganda and sensationalism and started the gold rush of 1849 by publishing reports of gold in the area in eastern markets. Brannan is recognized by many as the west coast's first millionaire although not from "gold". Like many others in Mormonism's founding days publishings indicate Brannan was also eventually "exiled" from Mormonism). 5) Other's followed James Strange (Strange was Harris' back up plan in case Brigham was killed or failed. Strange led a following to northern territories on the Great Lakes. Harris was never far away from Strange. Strange eventually also produced "writings" from plates he claimed he was led to. (Harris is noted within Mormon history as being responsible for "losing" 116 pages of writings Joseph produced). Strange was murdered 9 years after Brigham Young stopped his following at the salt lake in the center of the West and the West was won.
  31. During this period other people would mysteriously die or disappear. Harris and/or people claiming to be associated with the US Government were never far away. (1)
  32. Within two years of Mormonism conquering the West, US states started being formed on paper again. This ended the quarter century blight that began shortly before Mormonism's founding days. (1)
  33. When it came time for Brigham Young to commission a statue to commemorate Mormonism's settling of "Salt Lake City" and to be placed at the entrance to his expansive "Utah Territory" property instead of choosing an angel Moroni, a figure of Joseph, or anything related to Mormonism he chose an eagle on top of a 5-pointed star. This statue commemorating the "Gate for the Eagle" became known as "The Eagles Gate". These symbols acknowledged the conquering of the American continent's West by Freemasonry under the banner of the USA. Although the "Eagle" has always been highly visible, the "Star" is seldom mentioned publicly but is clearly visible in person and in many images. This Star is also used throughout Mormonism's early ecclesiastical buildings. Note that in the 1970's some groups with nefarious purposes adopted the 5-pointed star ("pentagram") as a purported satanic symbol however among different uses related to the USA, it had been used for over a century to also represent the rising Eastern Star.
  34. Between his 15 year old child cousin bride Lucy (10 years his junior) and his mysterious bride Caroline (29 years his junior), Martin Harris fathered 13 living children through the two females nubile wombs. Today there are 13 secret corporations that control Mormonism's $100 billion dollars.
  35. Images of Martin Harris in his later years (1870) show him holding a staff with a serpant's head. 116 years before, Benjamin Franklin used a serpant as patriotic imagery (1754).
  36. Although images of just about everyone else in Mormonism's founding days exist, Mormonism maintains that no images of Joseph Smith exist. Instead, they elect to use handsome cartoon renderings of Joseph Smith that generate millions of dollars in revenue every year. This is while Mormonism also ignores reports of at least one photograph and forensic science that indicates a less sensationalized image of Joseph Smith. Naturally, this image also demonstrates more family semblance with Alvin Smith than the cartoon images do.
  37. Of all figures in Mormonism's beginnings the grave marker of the forgotten Martin Harris is by far the most substantial. Joseph Smith doesn't even have his own marker. His is shared with his brother Hyrum and his first wife Emma even though Emma married a non-Mormon on Joseph Smith's birthday 3 years later. Mormonism goes to great lengths to hide Emma's marriage to a non-mormon after Joseph's murder especially with the critical role of Emma that has been weaved throughout Mormonism and the translation.
  38. Polygamy openly continued for over 60 years before being renounced so Utah could officially become a State. Polygamy continued privately for decades and continues still in many ways due to Mormonism maintaining spiritual polygamy.
  39. Mormonism openly practicing racism until 1978.
  40. Nepotistic connections through blood or marriage existed throughout Mormonism's founding days with the 3 witnesses and the 8 witnesses and continues today. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5). Note that of the "3 Witnesses" Martin Harris was one. One was also a "Whitmer". 4 of the "8 Witnesses" were Whitmer's. "Hyrum Page" of the "8 Witnesses" was married to a Whitmer. Joseph Smith's father and two brothers make up the rest of the "8". All most all of the witnesses eventually left Mormonism but out of fear of retribution from Harris' faction they never recanted their stories or roles in Mormonism.
  41. Today Mormonism is a nepotistic (1) (2) (3) (4) $150 Billion tax-free corporation masquerading as a "religion". It owns influential roles in companies you know and use everyday. $100 Billion of that ill-gotten wealth places Mormonism among the top 5 of the largest cash reserves in the USA. Additional billions are held in real estate development (one example), media control (NBC-UTAH), the USA's largest cattle producer, the USA's largest nut producer, Universities in Utah, Idaho and Hawaii (BYU) and billions of dollars more in tax free capital raising buildings disguised as chapels, temples and other "ecclesiastical" buildings. Even though Mormonism continues to have lie after lie revealed about it, it maintains disturbing nepotistic control over the State of Utah and it's political, legal, municipal, educational and media offices as well as it's global at-risk "volunteer" force of tens of thousands of teenagers).
  42. If Mormonism doesn't seem like an insidious regime yet this link should make it perfectly clear.
submitted by BringATwenty to MoMoNoMo [link] [comments]


2020.10.03 22:53 lc1320 Bartram’s Painted Vulture

If you’ve never seen the King Vulture (S. papa), you’re in for a treat. Looking more like a child’s felt art then a real bird, this new world vulture lives in Central and South America, among tropical lowland forests, near swamps and marshy places, though they have also been observed in the Amazon Rainforest and open savannas and grassland.
https://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/news/fun-facts-about-king-vultures (pictures of the Smithsonian’s painted vulture, for your viewing amusement)
The King Vulture is a member of the genus Sarcoramphus, which today contains only the King Vulture, but in the past, had a much wider range. A fossil of the Kern Vulture (S. kernense) was located in Kern County, CA, from the Pliocene era (3.5 to 2.5 million years ago). Another fossil of S. fisheri has been found in the Pleistocene era in Peru. Lastly, fossils of Sarcoramphus vultures have been found in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, dating to the Pliestocene era. It has been theorized that these could have been early King Vultures, or possibly another Sarcoramphus vulture.
The most mysterious member of Sarcoramphus is not the Kern Vulture, or S. fisheri, though little is known about them. Instead, this honor goes to S. sacra, otherwise known as Bartram’s Painted Vulture.
While far less of a household name then his later colleague, John James Audubon, William Bartram was an American botanist, ornithologist, natural historian, and explorer. He is most famous for his book, Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws. Containing an Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of Those Regions; Together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians, or more commonly Bartram’s Travels. In this book, he chronicled his explorations of the southern British Colonies from 1773 to 1777, and was credited as the first naturalist to penetrate the Florida tropical forests.
In Bartram’s Travels, he described two vultures yet unknown to science. One was the ubiquitous Black Vulture (C. atratus), today widespread from New England down to Chile. The other was the infamous Painted Vulture, alternatively referred to as the Croped Vulture. It was described as having a red crown, yellow bill, gold iris, as well as a yellow, red, and purple neck. The plumage was a white cream, and the tail was white with black tips. Sound familiar?
Bartram observed this bird along the St. John’s River region, and described how it feasted on lizards and snakes killed by fire. The Muscogee Natives (written in Bartram’s Travels as Muscogulges, or the Creeks), were said to create headdresses using the distinctive tail feathers of the bird to carry into battle.
However, while later ornithologists didn’t contest the bird’s description, few included it in their works. Alexander Wilson, a protege of Bartram’s, never visited Florida, and thus never included it in his American Ornithology. Charles Lucien Bonaparte never saw the bird, but he did include a message in his four-volume supplement to Wilson’s American Ornithology that indicated that the King Vulture has been observed in the southern United States. The species was also absent from John James Audubon’s The Birds of America and Ornithological Biography, despite the fact Audubon visited Florida in the 1830’s.
Bartram was not the only ornithologist who mentioned the Painted Vulture. Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot concurred with Bartram’s description of the Painted Vulture as a separate species. Thomas Nuttall mentioned the Painted Vulture in his discussion of the King Vulture. John Cassin also accepted Bartram’s description as valid, and believed the dark tail of the Painted Vulture made it distinct from a King Vulture.
Most importantly, the Painted Vulture was possibly described before Bartram, by Eleazar Albin, in 1734, which Bartram was likely unaware of. He calls his new bird the Warwovwen or Indian Vulture. Both of the descriptions of the birds were very similar, with no major discrepancies.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sarcorhamphus_sacer_Albin.jpg (a drawing of Albin’s Warwovwen, done by Albin himself)
Despite many of these discrepancies, the Painted Vulture was widely thought of as valid throughout the mid-19th century, though its relationship to the King Vulture was widely unknown. But, in 1871, Joel Asaph Allen, the first president of the American Ornithological Society (AOU), described the bird as a “purely mythical species.” Despite collecting intensively along St. John’s River, Allen failed to find the vulture, and likewise believed Bartram was mistaken, or had invented the bird. Considering Allen’s impressive reputation, his remarks found a home among other ornithologists. Charles Maynard suggested that Bartram could have been describing the Northern Caracara, a bird that Bartram had not reported in Florida, despite being collected by Audubon. Arthur Howell was also dismissive of the Painted Vulture, and hypothesized that Bartram either drew on his imagination, or drew a bird described by others in his Birds of Florida. Even today, the AOU does not recognize the Painted Vulture as either an extinct or living bird.
So, what was the Painted Vulture? An invention of Bartram? A mistake? A population of King Vultures in Florida? Or perhaps, a new species?
Bartram’s Invention
While this possibility must be considered, the idea that Bartram invented the Painted Vulture seems unlikely, especially considering Albin’s separate description of his Warwovwen. Bartram describes this bird as “not mentioned in history,” making it unlikely that he knew of Albin’s description. If there were truly two independent accounts of the same bird, it is more likely that the bird exists then two people made up the same bird.
Another possible sighting of the Painted Vulture was a description of a vulture in the collection of Hans Sloane, an Irish naturalist, by George Edwards in 1743. Edwards believes that the bird in the collection was Albin’s Warwovwen, although he describes the tail as wholly black, as supposed to Albin’s description of black tips. The exact origin of the bird is unknown, Edwards is even told the bird comes from the East Indies (Southeast Asia), however he believes that the bird is from the West Indies (Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico).
It is, of course, possible that Albin invented the bird based off the King Vulture, and Edwards misidentified a King Vulture as a Painted Vulture, and Bartram copied Albin’s description, but that seems unlikely at best.
Bartram’s Misidentification
Charles Maynard, a critic of Bartram’s Painted Vulture, suggested that the Painted Vulture could have actually been the Northern Caracara. This bird still exists in Florida, and has been described regularly by other ornithologists, including Audubon. Northern Caracaras have also been seen eating animals killed by fire, like Bartram’s Painted Vulture. Both possess white color at the base of the tail, but outside of that, they differ in almost every respect. Considering Bartram very accurately described the Black Vulture, it seems unlikely that he would be so off in his description of his Painted Vulture. Furthermore, even if he did mistake the Northern Caracara as a vulture, what did Albin see?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_crested_caracara (Pictures of the Northern Caracara)
A King Vulture Family Vacation
Today, the range of the king vulture is exclusively in Central and South America, but historically, it is very possible that they could have once inhabited Florida. The habitat there is not very different from the current habitat of the King Vulture, and while King Vultures have not been described as having white with black-tipped tails, genetic drift of an isolated population could easily describe any discrepancies. Both Albin’s picture and Bartram’s description line very closely with the King vulture, outside of the tail.
Additionally, there have been some suggestions of a Painted Vulture-like bird in other parts of the Southern United States, suggesting their range may be much larger. It is known that King Vultures were once found widely in Mexico, but are now no longer found there, and fossil records suggest that their range could have been much wider.
Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz, a historian and naturalist best known for his Histoire de la Louisiane described a “white eagle” in Louisiana, whose feathers were tipped with black, and prized by natives. Many believe that this 1758 description of a “white eagle” was referring to a bird with a hooked beak, although none was specifically mentioned. The only white bird with a hooked bill in the region was the American White Pelican, whose large bill would have made it very distinct from other birds. Not only does this description align closely with the Painted Vulture, the description of use by native tribes also aligns closely with Bartram’s mention of the feathers appearing in native headdresses.
Lastly, a 1906 archaeological find from a prehistorical Moundsville site in Tuscaloosa County, AL, is a limestone bowl recovered in pieces with a stone head resembling the head and neck of a King Vulture - or Painted Vulture. While some have suggested that this bowl could also resemble a wild turkey, and even ardent believers in the Painted Vulture caution making identifications of stylistic animals, there is no contemporary bird species that has both the curved vulturine/raptorial bill and the fleshy lappets of the forehead seen on the animal. Furthermore, while hard to count, the lines on the edge of the tail indicate twelve tail feathers, as opposed to the eighteen tail feathers found on turkeys.
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/m-8023 (the possible Painted Vulture bowl)
S. sacra - A New Species?
Having just made the case for a King Vulture-like bird being found in South America, it is unknown whether this possible bird was a subspecies of a King Vulture, or a separate Sarcoramphus vulture. Classifying animals as different species tends to be more of an art then a science even among animals that still exist, and trying to determine the species of an extinct animal is even harder, especially considering the lack of fossil evidence. It is entirely possible that the Painted Vulture found by Bartram in Florida, and possibly extending across the Southeast United States was a related but separate species from the King Vulture.
What Happened to the Vulture?
After about 1800, the vulture has not been observed by any ornithologist. The next extensive ornithological study of the region was Audubon’s study in the early 1830’s, when the bird was not located by Audubon, although Thomas Nuttall reported secondhand accounts of it along the Gulf Coast in 1832. This leaves over 50 years for the bird to have gone extinct. Bartram also never commented on the abundance of the birds, so it is possible that they could have been on the decline when sighted by Bartram. America has lost many birds since this time, including the Passenger Pigeon, and the Carolina Parakeet, so the extinction of a species (or subspecies) of birds in America is certainly not unheard of. Bartram described them as easy to kill when gathered by fires, and their feathers were highly in demand as ceremonial objects. The cold weather of 1835 had also been cited as a possible extinction event for these birds.
So, what was the Painted Vulture? An invention of Bartram’s, influenced by earlier ornithologists? A King Vulture subspecies once spread across the southeastern United States, or a separate Sarcoramphus species. Perhaps, most fancifully, some imagine this funny-looking bird still exists, in the sparsely populated tropical forests that still remain in Florida, waiting for someone to stumble across them and wonder what preschool brought their crafts to life.
Sources
https://dvoc.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Cassinia_74-75_Bartrams-Painted-Vulture.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_vulture
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24698902/
https://academic.oup.com/auk/article-abstract/59/1/104/5239299?redirectedFrom=PDF
https://www.jstor.org/stable/4079172?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=painted%20vulture&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dpainted%2Bvulture%26acc%3Don%26wc%3Don%26fc%3Doff%26group%3Dnone&ab_segments=0%2Fbasic_search_SYC-5462%2Fcontrol&refreqid=fastly-default%3Adcd045fc3114902e6f14e79f0357612e
submitted by lc1320 to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.09.30 18:07 mccanntech Wi-Fi 101: Origins and History

Wi-Fi as we know it today is a series of standards, voted on by a worldwide engineering body, the IEEE. The IEEE is an open membership organization with more than 423,000 engineers in 160 countries. It took years of work and dozens of proposals to form the original Wi-Fi standard in 1997. It took even more effort over the last 23 years to get to where we are now.
The story of the invention of Wi-Fi depends on who you ask. There is a complicated history leading up to that original 1997 standard, and the truth is hard to decipher. I'm not capable of litigating who invented what, but there are some key players to know about. Where possible, I will point out the people and the organizations behind the technology.

Wired and Wireless Precursors: Say ALOHA to Wireless Networking

In 1968, researchers at the University of Hawaii began to investigate if radio waves could be used for communication between computers. The project was led by professor Norman Abramson, Dr. Franklin Kuo, and a team of faculty and students. It would go on to become known as ALOHAnet.
During this time, wired computer networking was in its infancy, and evolving rapidly. Packet switching was conceived of by Paul Baran in 1964, and first demonstrated by Donald Davies in August 1968. In October 1969, the first ARPANET link was established between UCLA and the Stanford. By June 1971, ALOHAnet was the world's first wireless packet switched data network.(1)
During the development of ALOHAnet, Abramson and his team had to solve many foundational issues with wireless networking, including collisions and failed transmissions. They decided that a random access protocol would be the best way to accomplish this. The ALOHA protocol allowed terminals to send data whenever they had it, and listen to their transmissions to make sure they were received, and acknowledged. If a transmission failed, terminals would resend after a random delay. This was simple and effective, but had problems scaling up to more users. The ALOHA protocol was improved and expanded, and was the inspiration for CSMA/CA.
ALOHAnet was a pioneering technological marvel, but it was experimental and not fit for commercial use. Most critically, unlicensed spectrum for computer communications was not available to the public yet. Since the University of Hawaii didn't have a way to sell the technology, it was put into the public domain. ALOHAnet was decommissioned in 1976, but it inspired others to continue what it started. Most notably, Robert "Bob" Metcalfe studied it for his PhD dissertation.
Through the 1970s, many wired local area network technologies were developed. Some were proprietary, and some were open standards. Most of this early work has gone on to become ANSI or IEEE standards, and formed the basis of the computer communication and the Internet. A standards-based approach wasn't destiny, and we all benefit from the pioneers who pushed for standards over proprietary solutions. All of this groundbreaking work on wired standards helped lay the foundation for wireless.

Key Dates In Wired Networking History

The Wright Brothers of Wi-Fi

By 1985, all the pieces were in place for the development of a universal wireless networking standard. These were the Wild West days of wireless networking. Dozens of companies were competing to be the first to produce a successful product. Many companies came and went, so I'm only going to focus on the biggest and most important ones.

NCR and WaveLAN

In the 1980s, NCR Corporation was a big international company selling computers, ATMs, and cash registers. They wanted to develop a way to have their cash registers work wirelessly. This would give them a competitive advantage, and allow retail stores to avoid the costs and logistics of running cabling to every register. At the same time, cash registers were becoming more computer-like, so NCR sought to develop an International wireless standard that any computer could use. Two of the key engineers assigned to this project were Cees Links and Vic Hayes. Through 1986 and 1987, Vic and the other engineers at NCR developed a product which became known as WaveLAN.
NCR introduced WaveLAN to the world in 1990.(2) While WaveLAN was intended for use in cash registers, it was also positioned as a wireless alternative to Ethernet and Token Ring for PCs. In the 1990s, wireless products were expensive, and hard to use. The early drivers were buggy, and documentation was hard to find. WaveLAN network adapters cost hundreds of dollars, and access points could cost thousands. The high cost and limited usability kept WaveLAN as a niche product, mainly found in the big businesses that could afford them.
WaveLAN operated at 900MHz or 2.4 GHz, and offered speeds of 1 to 2 Mbps. It competed with Aironet's ARLAN and others which offered similar speeds, frequency ranges and hardware. Several companies also marketed wireless bridges and routers based on WaveLAN technology. Wireless networking products became a mess of competing companies and different implementations. The need for an International standard was clear.
NCR wanted to have Vic Hayes make the technical proposals to the IEEE on the companies behalf. Vic disagreed, and fought to stay independent and not do any of the proposals on behalf of NCR. The company agreed, and this actually worked to their benefit. Since Vic wasn't pushing NCR's proprietary solution, he gained the trust of others. Vic ended up becoming the first chairman of the IEEE 802.11 working group, giving him the nickname “Father of Wi-Fi"

IEEE and the 802.11 working group

In 1988, Vic Hayes approached the IEEE to contribute to the 802.4L, an existing committee creating a wireless standard based on Token Ring. As it turned out, that committee had become inactive, and the chairman had quit. This let to Vic becoming the chairman of 802.4L, and the forming of a new working group, 802.11. Ethernet and WaveLAN technology formed part of the technical base of the 802.11 committee, which was officially started in 1990.
WaveLAN and the knowledge of Vic Hayes' group at NCR helped form the basis, but countless others contributed as well. Many other companies submitted proposals for various aspects of the standard, and the group compromised and voted on the best ideas along the way. Most of their documents are still publicly available. The 802.11 group continued to work throughout the 1990s to develop the standard, which was a long and complicated process. It took 7 years and input from countless engineers to form the first Wi-Fi standard, known as 802.11-1997.
The first Wi-Fi standard was in some ways a messy compromise. It allowed for transmissions over Infrared or 2.4 GHz radio waves. It also allowed for two different frequency selection methods, which prevented guaranteed compatibility. In the end, both Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) were added to the standard. The group allowed these options as a way to please the entities involved in the creation, but it made the standard weak.
802.11-1997 never gained much traction. Despite that, the group got to work on its next set of standards, 802.11a and 802.11b, which were developed in parallel. The main difference between them was the frequencies and the modulation schemes they used.
802.11b hit the market first. Despite the slower speeds, people preferred the availability, lower cost, and longer range of the 2.4 GHz equipment. The success of 802.11b snowballed into the development of 802.11g, and made 2.4 GHz the defacto International wireless spectrum range for years to come.
In the late 1990s, Wi-Fi's success wasn't guaranteed. Early Wi-Fi devices were expensive, slow, and often incompatible with other devices. According to Vic Hayes, he approached many computers makers to persuade them to add Wi-Fi to their computers, but most of them said no. Steve Jobs and Apple wanted to add Wi-Fi to an upcoming laptop, but they wanted it to cost $100, not $500. They argued that the lower cost would make it more marketable to consumers.
Apple eventually got the $100 Wi-Fi card they wanted. The iBook and AirPort launched on July 21, 1999, a few months before the 802.11a and 802.11b standard were finalized. It was the first mainstream computer designed and sold with integrated wireless networking.

OFDM, CSIRO, and Dr. John O'Sullivan

This is where our story get murky. CSIRO is the Australian federal agency with a long history of scientific research. They have developed many advanced technologies, such as atomic absorption spectroscopy. According to CSIRO, Wi-Fi is an Australian invention. The truth isn't that simple, and it isn't that clear.
CSIRO's key insight came out of their work in radioastronomy. In 1977, CSIRO researcher Dr. John O'sullivan was searching for small exploding black holes. He wrote a paper about how fast Fourier transformations could be used to sharpen images from optical telescopes. As the waves traveled towards the telescope they became scrambled, and CSIRO developed a custom processor to use fast Fourier transformations to unscramble the image. While this technique didn't help him discover the black holes he was looking for, it helped to solve a different problem.
Starting in 1990, John O'Sullivan led a team of CSIRO scientists to develop a high-speed wireless network. Their goal was 100 Mbps, to compete with the best wired networks of the time. This caused them to look past the techniques used by ALOHAnet and WaveLAN, because they wouldn't be fast enough. One technical challenge they faced was how radio waves tend to bounce off surfaces indoors, causing an echo that distorts the signal. Using fast Fourier transformations, they found a way to transmit a signal while reducing that echo. Rather than using one fast wireless channel, they used lots of slower channels. This is known as multicarrier modulation.
Single-carrier modulation systems exploit only one signal frequency to transmit data. Multi-carrier modulation systems divide the whole frequency channel into subcarriers, and the data stream is divided into many low-rate streams transmitted in parallel. Single-carrier modulation has advantages, but multi-carrier modulation is better suited for high-bandwidth, short-range communication like Wi-Fi. In modern Wi-Fi standards, we use multi-carrier modulation in the form of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, or OFDM.
According to their lawyer in a 2009 patent dispute, CSIRO did not invent Wi-Fi, but it did invent the best way of doing it. CSIRO scientists tested hundreds of techniques until it found a unique combination that worked at high speeds. That combination involved multi-carrier modulation, forward error-correcting, and frequency interleaving to send multiple copies of the data. This specific combination of techniques is the secret sauce the CSIRO applied for a patent for in 1992, and was granted in 1996.
CSIRO didn't invent the underlying techniques, since they were already known. Frequency division multiplexing dates back to the late 1870s, when telegraph companies were trying to increase their capacity. Multi-carrier modulation was described in the 1950s. OFDM is attributed to Bell Labs employee Robert W. Chang back in 1966. Interleaving also dates back to the 1960s. Forward error correction was used when NASA sent the Mariner mission to Mars in 1968.
CSIRO also wasn't the first to combine these techniques and apply them to computer communication. Harris Semiconductor sold modems to the US military using these techniques in the 1980s. Critically, the Harris modem was never patented since interleaving, modulation, and coding had been around for decades by the time Harris came along. According to testimony, Intel official Stephen Saltzman said that outside CSIRO, engineers didn't take the idea of a Wi-Fi patent using these techniques seriously. Experts at Intel had already shipped products based on OFDM with previous employers, and thought that a new patent with OFDM didn't seem credible. Regardless of the merits and the origin of the ideas, US patent #5,487,069 was granted in 1996.
During the development of the 802.11a standard, CSIRO made the IEEE aware of its patent and offered to license it. Beyond that offer, CSIRO never got involved in the creation of the 802.11 standards. Dozens of companies made proposals to the various 802.11 committees, offering to submit their ideas or license their patents. CSIRO never submitted a proposal for the original 1997 standard, or any of the revisions. Despite their lack of involvement in the process and lack of licensing agreement, 802.11a, 802.11g, and later IEEE standards would go on to use OFDM and multi-carrier modulation.
Years later, CSIRO used this as the basis for lawsuits against major networking and technology companies. CSIRO won settlements worth $205 million in 2009, and another $229 million in 2012. If you want more detail on the CSIRO patent fight, Joe Mullin wrote a good piece for ArsTechnica back in 2012. Mark Summerfield wrote a counter-point to Joe's article for Patentology, looking at what the CSIRO patent did and didn't cover.
The truth is a messy thing. In Wi-Fi's case, success truly did have many fathers.

802.11 Timeline

Footnotes:

1 - ALOHAnet used 100 KHz channels, operating at 9600 baud on the 407 and 413 MHz UHF frequencies. It originally connected seven computers across four islands, which communicated wirelessly with a central computer in a star network topology.
2 - AT&T would go on to buy NCR in 1991, only to spin off the remnants of the division as NCR and Lucent by 1996.

Sources and Further Reading

submitted by mccanntech to networking [link] [comments]


2020.09.29 21:24 ar_david_hh Sep/29/2020 wrap-up: \\ War in Karabakh-Artsakh \\ events & videos as they unfolded \\ Armenia liberates positions \\ ARM jet & AZE helicopters downed \\ Azeri equipment lines are thinning; 137 tanks, 7 helic, 71 drones, 790 dead, 1.9k wounded \\ world media and politicians respond to Turkey \\ more

Find out how the war unfolded on Sep-27 and Sep-28.
Secret footage from Armenian frontlines:
https://youtu.be/gh7XbW67-lE

beware of fake posted by Azerbaijani agents

There is a video allegedly showing two ambushed Armenian soldiers in trenches, screaming "our army has abandoned us". It is a clear fake, with them having a non-Armenian accent, a first-person-view camera being "conveniently" attached at a place where Armenians don't wear it, and it being made overly-dramatic for "psychological impact".
Another similar fake was posted yesterday. The voice-over guy sounds the same.
A screenshot from the video for identification: https://i.imgur.com/nSvXsHs.png

September 29 / night / before the day began

A 9-year-old Armenian child was killed in Martakert city. Other family members were injured. The girl's father spoke about the incident and condemned Azerbaijan. "It's all they want and it's all they can do."
https://youtu.be/Anp3QBUaPlY
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029364.html
Dozens of 1990s Artsakh war veterans gathered in the capital Stepanakert. They're waiting for Army to distribute weapons and coordinate the deployment.
https://youtu.be/W7iW0S9XITs?t=41
One of the Azeri pilots who died on Sep-27 is Major Qasim Abbas oglu. He was a State Border Security (SBS) officer and not from the Defense Ministry. That means the helicopter he was flying was likely Mi-17. This is also proof that Azeri SBS was engaged in Artsakh. (they are usually near the Tavush border).
https://twitter.com/razminfo/status/1310679019432693760?s=20
Yesterday an Armenian MP called for Azeri ethnic minorities to check the names of dead Azer soldiers and realize that Aliyev's tactic is to send ethnic minorities to front lines to be used as disposable pawns.
Some Talysh-Azeri minorities have the same complaint. A man says 5 out of 7 recently-verified-killed Azeri soldiers had Talysh names. "the Aliyev regime massacres the Talysh in the war zone," complained the man.
https://twitter.com/rahimsaliyev/status/1310188892876877824
"Don't let your kids use TikTok", said Human Rights Ombudsman, citing rampant Armenophobia coordinated by Turkish and Azeri users of the platform.
https://youtu.be/48N72uiUllU?t=112
The military doesn't care if an army official served under the former or current Armenian government. They currently receive advice from all political camps.
https://news.am/arm/news/604769.html
Be aware of social media hacks. Azeri agents spread panic-inducing misinformation on Facebook after taking over accounts.
https://t.me/infocomm/21252
update: yesterday 3,000 Armenian men in Georgia's southern Javakh region gathered near the border but couldn't cross it. The customs issues have since been cleared and they were allowed to transport their vehicles with aid.
https://news.am/arm/news/604751.html
ArmSec foundation advises Armenians not to use Turkish CA Certificates, which can be used for hacking. Instruction on how to remove these digital certificates:
https://armsec.org/Turkish_CA_Certificate_Removal_Steps.pdf
https://t.me/infocomm/21263
 
Recep Erdogan continues the persecution of ethnic-minority politicians from the pro-Kurdish and pro-Armenian HDP party. The regime's prosecutor is preparing documents to strip Turkish-Armenian MP Garo Paylan from immunity. He, along with 81 others, is the latest target for having dissented the regime's policies.
https://massispost.com/2020/09/its-time-to-condemn-and-sanction-turkey/
Glendale Armenians gathered in front of City Hall in support of Artsakh.
https://twitter.com/CivilNetTV/status/1310786951688065024?s=20
 

Before we proceed... how did the foreign media cover the events yesterday?

middleeasteye.net: Turkey recruiting Syrians to guard troops and facilities in Azerbaijan. Rebels and civilians employed as security suspect they will soon be sent to fight Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh"
https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/azerbaijan-armenia-turkey-syrians-recruiting-guard-facilities
Turkey-based Syrian journalist: Muhammad Shaalan, from my town Al Atarib [Syria] was killed in Azarbaijan. He was with thwar Al sham, left the group months ago. He headed to Azarbaijan a week ago. Death date and place are still unknown.
https://twitter.com/HousseinAk/status/1310978787014840324?s=20
Russian govt-run RT journalist Gazdiev: Azerbaijan is now refusing entry for all foreign journalists. Only loyal domestic and Turkish media are being allowed to cover the conflict. Armenia is not only allowing access to journalists but actively inviting them.
https://twitter.com/MuradGazdiev/status/1310649226741907459?s=20
 
Russian opposition Rain TV provided extensive coverage of the conflict in a neutral tone, but with emphasis that Turkey is meddling in the war.
https://youtu.be/Q8mCaJ2dqB0
https://youtu.be/yXlobQmMCBc?&t=13
https://youtu.be/BD6a1wfaxSM
 
For those of you won't don't have Telegram, here is a collection of Russian WarGonzo outlet's footage from the front lines. They found the remnants of Azeri flying object. It's bigger than a regular drone and they speculated it could be parts of a jet/helicopter. It was later claimed that it's part of an Azeri AN-2 plane that was shot.
https://youtu.be/AfqMxjopFSA
https://youtu.be/LeSQmyaFar0
https://youtu.be/_cQVjIwOG4g
https://youtu.be/wGFZMfSvS3o
https://youtu.be/7EenGKyzjdU
https://twitter.com/Kyruestatus/1310669823647588354
 
Russia's largest govt-run Channel 1 outlet has a prime-time talk-show called "Time will tell", which invited Armenian, Azeri, and Russian experts for debates.
Russian reporter was invited to explain the situation. He mentioned the situation in Stepanakert and how Azeris [failed to take and] damaged the northern highway connecting Armenia to Artsakh, with Turkish Bayraktar drones.
Azeri Guest: how do you know Azeris used Turkish drones?
Russian Reporter: these drones are made in Turkey.
Russian Host: hold on. Let's assume the drones were of "unknown origin". Now let's analyze which drones they were.
Russian Reporter: ... the Azeri side doesn't hide it's Turkish...
Russian Host responds to Azeri Guest: here is a video [shows a Bayraktar video] published by Azeris showing the destruction of several Armenian vehicles. The footage appears to be recorded from a Turkish drone. Period.
Russian Reporter continues: we visited Stepanakert and saw the outcome of the Azeri GRAD missile attack that was used against a completely peaceful civilian house.
Russian Host: have you learned any info on who started this war?
Russian Reporter: locals say Azerbaijan began bombing at 7:10 am yesterday. I know each side will blame the other, but I'm more concerned about civilians. I spoke with 2 Armenian kids in a bomb shelter. Their house was bombed. It's not even near any military object.
Azeri guest: Pashinyan started this. He escalated the situation this year.
Russian Guest enters chat: so you're telling me it's Armenians who started it, while it was Azeris who launched a partial draft ahead of time and brought reinforcements?
Azeri Guest: .... because Armenians provoked
Russian Guest: ... "provoked" by "using words" but they didn't open fire. [host interrupts]
Russian Host to Azeri Guest: when you say Pashinyan is the one who verbally provoked, I can assure you that both sides made provocative statements, including the Turkish side.
[the main theme became the Turkish involvement in the conflict. The Russian host and guests are not pleased. They blasted Erdogan's statements.]
Russian Host: let's use logic about who started the war. Here is a video [of Azeri soldiers being destroyed during an unsuccessful attempt to capture northern highway through a gorge near Mrav]. Someone gave those soldiers an order to move forward. Why?
Armenian Guest: obviously the order was given by the Azeri govt. It's elementary logic. Armenia has no reason to start a war. Karabakh is already de-facto free.
Azeri Guest: Nope, Armenians started it. It's beneficial for Armenia to provoke a war.
Armenian Guest: why would they?
Azeri Guest: so Artsakh separatists can launch a process for independence. (apparently crack pipe is on sale on Amazon. Cyber Crackday. Black Plaqueday. Big if true.)
Russian Host sits next to Azeri guest: are you sure about that?
Azeri Guest: Yes. Why not?
[theme changes about Syrian mercenaries]
Russian Host: I can't confirm 100%, but here is a video from Azerbaijan showing a column of fighters in pickup trucks with flags and [Allahu Akbar] chants. Do these men chant in Azeri or Arabic?
Azeri Guest: they are Azeri because I heard their accent with "e" instead of "a" while chanting "akbar". Syrians don't have "e". It's unique to Turkic.
Armenian Guest: the pro-Turkish fighters in northern Syria are ethnic Turkmen, not necessarily Arab.
Russian Guest: we can send it to professional linguists for analysis.
https://youtu.be/uFxsQ3uBIyY?t=1643
https://youtu.be/3VOpGDtCVgI
 

September 29 / morning arrives

Nikol Pashinyan: the last minutes of the Security Council session was disrupted by loud horns coming from outside. I looked out and saw a column of vehicles, circling around the square, with passengers shouting and honking. I thought it was a wedding at first, but it turned out to be the volunteers joining the army. Stay strong, people!
https://factor.am/288240.html
8:14 ARM army: Azeris are preparing their artillery for an attack. We pushed back their armored vehicles in multiple areas. The punitive response in the south has left several of their vehicles destroyed.
https://t.me/infocomm/21265 , https://factor.am/288193.html
9:32: Armenian army shared the video of the aforementioned failed Azeri armored vehicle attack and the destruction of the enemy equipment, and several positions.
Video: https://youtu.be/n1Q2Il5dxeA?t=9
8:49: Azerbaijani govt has once again censored their internet amid mounting death toll. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, WhatsApp, TikTok, Skype were down. If you're reading this on Reddit, your IQ is five thousand. Congrats.
https://news.am/arm/news/604771.html
9:02: the leader of Armenia's ruling QP party says they're discussing the possibility to sign a military agreement with Artsakh to share more weapons.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029376.html
10:29: Armenians shoot down another Azeri drone.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029382.html
9:53: Vardenis area is the junction point between Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Artsakh. It's fully within the Republic of Armenia. Armenian MFA says Azeris are lying about being shelled from this area. "Azerbaijan is fabricating a pretense to attack Vardenis."
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029379.html
10:54: as expected, Azerbaijan shelled Armenia's Vardenis region. Their drone struck a civilian bus (no one inside) beside and military positions. Armenian army didn't sustain casualties from the attack on Vardenis. "Expect a harsh response," said ARM army.
Photo of the bus: https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029408.html
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029386.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029388.html , https://factor.am/288309.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029394.html
12:42: Azerbaijan is shelling villages in Vardenis. One civilian was killed.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029402.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029409.html
14:08: Armenia's security council informed the Russian colleagues that Armenia's Vardenis region was bombed. Russia's Nikolai Patrishev expressed "deep concerns."
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029422.html
14:32: Russian-funded GeoProMining miner has temporarily suspended its gold mining in Sotq Mine for security reasons starting Sep-27 when the battles began.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029426.html
14:28: CSTO military bloc says they haven't received a petition by member Armenia to discuss the shelling of the Vardenis region. "We'll discuss if Armenia contacts us". Armenia sent a report describing the situation.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029425.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029445.html
17:58 ARM army: an F-16 jet belonging to Turkey shot down an Armenian Su-25, which was flying within Armenia airspace near Vardenis. The pilot has died. (Turkey denied shooting it.)
This F-156 took off from Azeri Ganja airport and was patrolling the Azeri air since 10:30 am, and was aiding the Azeri helicopters and Turkish Bayraktar drones in their attack. At the time of engaging, the F-156 was 60km within Azerbaijan at 8.2km altitude.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029472.html
11:24: Armenia released a video showing how a group of Azeri soldiers got shot while running back in panic. 60 Azeri soldiers were killed in north and south.
Video (nsfw): https://m.facebook.com/armenpress/videos/1038231189970329/
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029392.html
11:41 ARM army: Azerbaijan is lying about our military units in Martuni being completely out of order. "All units remain in place and continue to deal blows to the attacker."
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029396.html
11:46 ARM army: the drafted reservists aren't immediately sent to front lines. We don't have such urgent need right now. The losses sustained by Azerbaijan are uncomparable to Armenia's.
https://www.panarmenian.net/arm/news/285680/
11:55: Armenians have shot down the 5th Azeri helicopter since Sep-27. There is a chance the 6th one was also struck just now.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029398.html
12:37: Armenia released a video showing the aftermath of the downing of 2 Azeri helicopters. Igla missile was used. Large mushroom clouds and post-impact explosions.
Video: https://youtu.be/PIc4ZBLkE70
Video: https://m.facebook.com/armenpress/videos/772905233546327/
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029401.html
15:40: Armenia released the second video showing how the Azeri helicopter was shot by a missile while hovering in the air. Igla was apparently used.
Video: https://m.facebook.com/armenpress/videos/2695601887362093/
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029438.html
12:18: photos of an Azeri drone being shot over capital Stepanakert.
https://factor.am/288298.html
12:21: Robert Kocharyan & co-defendants' "March 1st" trial is postponed because defendant Seyran Ohanyan, a former Defense Minister, is currently in Artsakh to aid the army.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029400.html
12:44 ARM army: Azerbaijan is using heavy TOS-1C and Smerch missiles, taking it to a whole new level. We will respond with similar weapons.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029403.html
12:49: Armenia released a new video showing the destruction of Azeri tanks. Numerous Azerbaijani soldiers were killed; some of them are seen trying to escape to the other side of the hill before being shot.
Video (graphic): https://youtu.be/oQcQV1NYtpY
https://youtu.be/RqcRbujmeNw
12:50: Armenia's Human Rights Ombudsman released the names of 4 civilians, including children, who were killed. The office contacted international bodies to file a complaint.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029405.html
13:23 ARM army: Azeris made attempts to attack. They lost 5 tanks, 11 drones, 1 engineering vehicle, four 82A transport cars, and many soldiers.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029411.html
13:26: Orbeli research center published names of 81 more Azeri soldiers who were killed. "Aliyev regime is hiding numbers from the public. This list is just a fraction. The number sharply rose recently," said Orbeli center.
The list: https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029412.html
13:36 ruling QP MP: by censoring the internet, Aliyev is trying to conceal their serious losses to prevent panic. There is almost no official info from the Azeri govt, so the public follows Armenian news.
Human lives are not important for the dictatorial regime in Baku. President Aliev's goal is to save his power. This adventure will cost them dearly...
These events highlighted the fact that Turkey hasn't given up its century-old genocidal policies. The world knows who the aggressor is.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029414.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029431.html
13:37 authorities to public: we've noticed many patriotic posts on social media. Any donation campaign to collect and send tangible items to Artsakh should be coordinated by authorities. There is no need to send food to soldiers. Don't share their private data.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029413.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029420.html
16:31: celebrities, soccer clubs, and others organized a volunteer campaign across Armenia to gather aid for soldiers. Cigarettes, new clothes, etc.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029451.html
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029453.html
14:15: the govt says the best way to donate is through All-Armenia Fund at himnadram.org or one of many other methods mentioned in this link:
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029423.html
14:42: the All-Armenia Fund has collected $3.1m in donations since Sep-27. They posted info for direct wiring:
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029429.html
13:59: Armenian hacking group "Monte Melkonyan" shut down several Azeri govt websites, including that of the president and Defense Minister.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029419.html
15:47: NSS received complaints from numerous residents about receiving text messages from unknown numbers with alarming information about front lines. NSS says it's a fake news campaign by Azeri trolls with the use of spoofed numbers.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029440.html
14:11 ARM army: The enemy is making the last efforts both on the battlefield and in the information sphere. That is why it has thrown everything into battle, every possible weapon, and even the latest fakes.
https://factor.am/288412.html
14:59: first lady Anna Hakobyan continued her trip to bomb shelters across the capital Stepanakert. "Women, children, and the elderly are emotional, but they are strong," she wrote. The govt will install more beds and help with food distribution.
Photos: https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029432.html
16:14: Dashnak's youth wing organized a march to the UN embassy in Armenia and gave them a letter of complaint about "Azerbaijan's and Turkey's terrorist activities."
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029446.html
15:52 ARM army: Our artillerymen are virtuosos. They hit several Azeri tanks with grenade launchers. (ռագատկա next?)
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029442.html
16:03: another Azeri drone was shot in the air by Artsakh defense forces.
Video: https://youtu.be/f_J6k4PefD0
17:29: MFA Mnatsakanyan sent a letter to the UN secretariat about Azerbaijan's pre-planned aggression and targeting of civilians.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029461.html
17:31: an Armenian Lt. Colonel Lernik Babayan released a video to counter the Azeri fake news about his deaths. He was presented as an "Armenian special forces commander who was killed".
https://youtu.be/FnQ27IhPar0
17:57: Armenia released a video showing the outcome of a failed Azeri attempt to damage a railway with a big missile. A large crater was formed next to a village.
https://youtu.be/yRV1yOj85_Y
18:18: a video from an earlier failed tank assault by Azerbaijan, in which they lost 12 tanks.
https://youtu.be/wzO59IBId-w
19:06 Artsakh president: I spoke with the commander in the north. It's as if nothing unusual is happening and this is an ordinary training. He said, "meh, they attacked with 100 people on each position, we threw them back. We give we take. We'll solve the problem soon". The spirits are high.
We scored a success in the north. They threw all their power and tanks at us. They come, we shoot. They come, we shoot. We don't count any longer, nor do we have time to count. We will hit for as long as they come.
https://168.am/2020/09/29/1375729.html
20:36: Artsakh president signed a decree giving 23 more medals to fallen Armenian soldiers.
https://t.me/infocomm/21372
19:17 Pashinyan on Twitter: Armenia and Artsakh will respond adequately to Azerbaijan's attempts to disrupt regional stability.
Pashinyan to BBC: I urge the international community to condemn the Turkish and Azeri aggression against Armenia and Artsakh, which targeted peaceful civilians. The Turkish F-16 jets are fully engaged in the conflict. The people of Artsakh have a right to self-determination. I've said before that the resolution must be acceptable to both Armenians and Azeris.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029486.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029485.html
19:32 ARM army: Artsakh defense forces continue to confidentially destroy the Azeri military equipment.
Video or tanks and personnel destruction: https://youtu.be/xy1c3CQouA4?t=9
Orbiter 1K belonging to Azerbaijan was destroyed today. Video from inside Armenian anti-air unit.
https://youtu.be/4Mf6dFbgmfY
An unidentified drone was downed by the Iranian air defense after it intruded into their territory.
https://youtu.be/KSa1OQG8ySE?t=8
19:59 Speaker Mirzoyan: this war will end with the destruction of Azerbaijan's entire striking potential. They'll need decades to recover. I don't say this for "spiritual" reasons.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029497.html
20:00: Armenia published a video proving that Azeris placed their TOS missile unit within asettlement boundaries to use their civilians as a shield.
https://twitter.com/ShStepanyan/status/1310972854356279297?s=20
20:21 Pashinyan on Twitter: // a new war against Karabakh and Armenia is a war against democracy. //
He gave an interview to The Spectator: https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/how-armenia-views-the-conflict-with-azerbaijan
https://twitter.com/NikolPashinyan/status/1310977884664860672?s=20
20:06 ARM spokesmen: The heroism and literacy of "Leopard 1" unit should be included in history books. Details after the war. (hmmm interesting 🤔)
https://factor.am/288628.html
20:47 Pashinyan during Russia-1 TV interview: Azeri army has failed to fulfill the task of the military-political leadership. The negotiations should continue with the help of the Minks Group. Azerbaijan must accept that there is no military solution to this conflict... The Turkish army is directly involved. They are coordinating Azeri groups on the ground.
(Aliyev said he is committed to the format of the negotiations and blamed Armenia for failing it with "unacceptable demands".)
More: https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029506.html
https://news.am/arm/news/604964.html , https://factor.am/288684.html
21:07: famous Artsakh war veteran "Arabo" is preparing for deployment. (and no, he is not an Arab mercenary despite the nickname)
https://t.me/reartsakh/3710
21:11 Hetq journalist reporting from front lines: the tide is slowly turning in our favor. The lines of Azeri equipment in front lines are thinning. There are destroyed tanks and armored vehicles across the entire border. (no wonder why the gollum has to keep PayPal-ling aid to Ilham.)
https://t.me/bagramyan26/18474
21:37 ARM army: Azerbaijan failed the attacks in north and south. We have significant success and re-captured some positions. All-day long they used aviation, artillery, tanks, etc. They were forced to retreat and strengthen their original positions.
We'll report our losses soon after confirmation.
Today Azeris lost 17 tanks, 4 armored vehicles, 3 engineering vehicles, 13 UAVs, etc.
Since the beginning, Azerbaijan lost 790 soldiers and 1,900 were wounded. 180 were lost near Qarvachar (Kelbecer)
137 Azeri tanks and vehicles were shot. 71 drones. 7 helicopters. 1 plane (Azeri plane that was shot yesterday).
https://www.facebook.com/ArtsakhInformation/videos/814077582677908/?epa=SEARCH_BOX
https://www.facebook.com/ArmenianUnifiedInfoCentevideos/719737225551765/
22:10: BREAKING: a new video showing the destruction of an Azeri military fleet that was transporting ammunition. It's engulfed in fire.
https://t.me/infocomm/21390
22:54: how about a video showing the destruction of two Azeri drones simultaneously?
https://youtu.be/n_uflQAqHic
23:03 Telegram news citing its sources, not yet confirmed independently: this is the hospital where they bring many of the wounded Azeri soldiers. Every hour, there are 3-4 long columns of emergency vehicles arriving. The lines are long and no one is allowed to enter, not even the family members, presumably to conceal the scale of the losses from the Azerbaijani public.
https://t.me/reartsakh/3722
 

How did the world respond today?

European Parliament deputy-speaker Fabio Castaldo urged the EU to condemn the "Azeri aggression against Artsakh" and the targeting of civilians. "The EU should impose sanctions if a ceasefire is rejected". He also criticized Erdogan's actions.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029449.html
U.S. Democrats warn Turkey over involvement in Azerbaijan-Armenia conflict
https://thehill.com/policy/international/518737-democrats-warn-turkey-over-involvement-in-azerbaijan-armenia-conflict
U.S. Congresswoman Dina Titus condemned Azeri attacks and Turkey's support for aggression. "Turkey should stop sending arms and fighters to Azerbaijan."
https://twitter.com/repdinatitus/status/1310636287918067716?s=20
Joe Biden wants Donald Trump to demand Turkey to stay away from the conflict.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029508.html
The UK and Canada are very concerned about the escalation. U.S.'s Mike Pompeo met a Greek colleague to discuss regional issues during which he called for a ceasefire. He was joined by the UN Human Rights committee, France, etc. https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029434.html
The speaker of the Cyprus Parliament joined in the condemnation of Turkish aggression. He sent "warm feelings and wished Armenians success."
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029417.html
UK baroness Caroline Cox condemned the Azeri aggression. "Azerbaijan once again launched a massive, irregular attack."
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029490.html
Russian newspaper Nezavisimaya Gazeta: Turkey has unofficially joined the Karabakh war.
https://www.ng.ru/cis/2020-09-28/5_7975_war.html
https://factor.am/288436.html
Famous Russia-based pro-Kremlin Russian-Armenian political analyst Karen Shahnazarov: "Is Russia an empire, or a merchant that sells oil and vaccines?..."
https://factor.am/288537.html
World soccer champion Yuri Djorkaeff's brother sent a letter to French president Macron urging him to condemn the Azeri/Turkish/mercenary aggression.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029450.html
The Turkish currency Lira hit a new low after yesterday's record low. $1 = 7.83 L. That's a 24% loss this year.
"The fear is that Turkey, whose economy is on its knees and is actively engaged in escalating conflicts in northern Syria, and with Greece in the Mediterranean, could get dragged into yet another regional conflict [Artsakh] it can ill afford, either politically or economically,” said Jeffrey Halley, senior market analyst.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029452.html
https://www.google.com/amp/s/ahvalnews.com/turkish-lira/turkish-lira-hits-record-low-after-azerbaijan-armenia-clashes-erupt%3famp
Turkish govt propaganda presented a Serb actor as a mercenary hired by Armenia.
🤡https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029473.html
Reporters Without Borders has condemned the use of a drone to intimidate Armenian journalists. The incident happened yesterday. No one was injured.
https://twitter.com/RSF_en/status/1310989165048270849
Kanye West said he's praying for Armenia. Khloe Kardashian will raise awareness about Azeri aggression.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029380.html , https://factor.am/288525.html
U.S. Congressman Jason Crow condemned the Azeri aggression and urged Turkey not to aid them.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029421.html
 
some non-military news now

COVID stats

+2,886 tested. +327 infected. +1 death. +184 healed. 4,798 active. 289,047 tested.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029390.html

transactions and taxations

LHK leader Edmon Marukyan urged Armenians to continue to spend and live their lives as normal instead of saving the money, so the government can collect its tax and pay the bills.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1029384.html

The economy is recovering after COVID

Economic Activity Index +7.4% in August vs July. Industrial output +8%. Construction +30%. Trade +0.4%. Deflation -0.1%. Foreign trade +6%. Exports +3%. Imports +7%.
https://news.am/arm/news/604772.html
 
You've read 3716 words.
submitted by ar_david_hh to armenia [link] [comments]


2020.09.27 21:50 Ex-CultMember The "CES Letter" on STEROIDS

...is Mormonism-Shadow or Reality by Jerald & Sandra Tanner. In case any of you are not familiar with the Tanners, they were THE "anti-Mormons" for the second half of the 20th century. Nearly everything we have today regarding the problems with Mormon history and truth claims were already found by these two and compiled into numerous books, including what is often considered their "magnum opus," titled, Mormonism-Shadow or Reality. The book is a huge 600 page (small print) tome, exhaustively covering just about every critical piece of historical information found, challenging the traditional narrative, foundation and truth claims in Mormonism.
For those wanting a deep dive into the stuff not covered in Runnell's CES Letter, I would start here. This book should be in every ex-Mormon's library. Below is the table of contents:
  1. A Marvelous Work? ..............................................1
Miraculous Claims—The Only True Church?—The Best
People?—Updated Material
  1. Change, Censorship and Suppression.................5
Changing Doctrines—Rebaptism—Censorship—Changing
An Article of Faith—Key to Theology—Journal of
Discourses—Lucy Smith’s Book—Book Burning—
Suppressing the Records—Dr. Nibley Refused—Apostles’
Threats—Mormons Protest Suppression—Updated Material
  1. Changes in the Revelations ................................14
Book of Commandments—Not For Reproduction—Other
Changes—Study of Changes—Important Changes—
Unthinkable?—Updated Material
  1. Joseph Smith and Money-Digging.....................32
Joseph Smith’s 1826 Trial—Importance of Discovery—A
Common Practice—Peep Stones—Book of Mormon From
Stone—Embarrassed Over Stone—Relationship to Book
of Mormon—Working with the Rod—Affidavits and
Statements—The Treasure Hunt Revelation—Updated
Material
  1. The Book of Mormon...........................................50
The Witnesses—Character of Witnesses—Apostasy—
Strang and McLellin—Unreliable Witnesses—Martin
Harris—Oliver Cowdery—David Whitmer—Angels and
Gold Plates—Too Much Excitement—Harris’ Shaker
Book— Ancient Or Modern?—Fits Smith’s Environment—
Revivals—Infant Baptism—Church of Christ—Ministers and
Money—Westminster Confession—Masonic Influence—
Bible Influence—The Apocrypha—Old Testament—New
Testament—List Of Parallels—A Real Dilemma—Alpha and
Omega—Origin of Indians— “Wonders of Nature”—“No
Traveller Returns”—Vapor of Darkness—Not Unique—“An
Ignominious Death”—Joseph Smith’s Father’s Dream—
Smith Probably Qualified—Changes in the Book of
Mormon—Lost Book of Lehi—Making Up Names—Bible
Prophecy—Beyond the Book of Mormon—Updated Material
  1. Archaeology and the Book of Mormon .............97
A Pagan People—A Lost Civilization—Mormon Scholars
Face the Truth—Nephite Coins and Chariots—Anthon
Transcript—“Deformed English”—Bat Creek Stone—
Fraudulent Inscriptions—Kinderhook Plates—Falsification
of History— “Childish Forgeries”—Newark Stones—Tree
of Life Stone—Lehi, Sariah and Nephi?—Geography—Hill
Cumorah—Compared With Bible Archaeology—Updated
Material
  1. Changes in Joseph Smith’s History................126
Written By Joseph Smith?—New Discoveries—Film
Supplies New Evidence—Over 60% After Smith’s Death—
Rocky Mountain Prophecy—Selected Changes—
Conclusion—Updated Material
  1. The First Vision.................................................143
Vision Criticized—“Strange” Accounts—An Important
Change—Revision Required—First History—Too Many
Stories—Doctrinal Change—Source of Confusion—An
Evolving Story—No Revival in 1820—Lane and Stockton—
Moving the Revival—A Changing Story—Joseph a
Methodist—Joseph Changed His Mind—Clandestine’s
Errors—Professor Hill’s Speech
  1. The Godhead .....................................................163
From One to Many—The Heavenly Mother—
Serious Changes—Removing the Lecturers—“Inspired”
Corrections—Elohim—Hands Or Wings?—A Changeable
God—The Holy Ghost—No Real Answers—Updated
Material
  1. The Adam-God Doctrine .................................173
Falling Upward— “Our Father And Our God”—Confusion
and Strife—Updated Material
  1. The Priesthood..................................................179
Added Later—Aaronic Priesthood—Melchizedek
Priesthood—High Priests—First Presidency—Age of
Ordination
  1. The Arm of Flesh..............................................183
Thinking a Sin?—No Revelation—Updated Material
  1. False Prophecy..................................................186
The Canadian Revelation—The Lord’s Coming—A Temple
in Zion—The Civil War—The Gathering—Joseph’s Boys—
Other Prophecies—Updated Material
  1. The Hereafter ...................................................196
Universalists—Joseph Changes His Mind—Mormon
Purgatory—Degrees Of Glory—Dissolved and Reorganized
Spirits
  1. The Missionary System....................................200
  2. Plural Marriage................................................202
Reason For Revelation—Breaking the Law—Contradicts
Book of Mormon—Contradicts the Bible—Threatened
with Destruction—Wives Before the Revelation—Leaders
Puzzled—Sorrows of Polygamy—Discord in Joseph’s
Home—Lived With His Wives—Number of Wives—Taking
Other Men’s Wives—Polygamy or Promiscuity?—John C.
Bennett—Sarah Pratt Affair—Martha Brotherton—Nancy
Rigdon—Strange Marriages—Polygamy and Courtship—
Only 2%—One-Wife System Condemned—Adam a
Polygamist—God and Christ Polygamists—Essential to
Salvation—Updated Material
  1. The Manifesto...................................................231
After the Manifesto—“Manifesto A Deception”—Polygamy
in Utah Today—Taylor’s 1886 Revelation—The Dilemma—
Updated Material
  1. Mormonism and Truth ....................................245
The Mormon Battalion—Making God a Liar—Conclusion
  1. Joseph Smith.....................................................252
A Fighting Prophet—General Smith—“The Greatest
Egotist”—Mixing Politics And Revelation—Destruction of
the Expositor—Like a Lamb?
  1. The Virgin Birth...............................................260
Conclusion
  1. The Negro in Mormon Theology ....................262
Black Skin—Pre-Existence—Sons of Cain—Through the
Flood—One Drop Disqualifies—Negroes in the Priesthood
—Negroes Unhappy—Objections To Doctrine—For Cain’s
Sins—Negroes and the Gospel—Nigerian Mission—Rooted
in Prejudice—Slavery in Utah—Civil Rights—The Genesis
Group—Athletes Protest—A Serious Situation—Church
Rejects Violence—Appeasement—Dissatisfaction—A
Burning Issue—A New Revelation?—Joseph Fielding
Smith—An Honest Solution—Conclusion—Updated
Material
  1. Fall of the Book of Abraham...........................294
The Papyri Rediscovered— “Caught Flat-Footed”—History
of Papyri—Deciphering Egyptian—Spalding’s Attack—
“Dr. Webb”—Tragic Neglect—Not Out Of Date—A
Suspicious Discovery—Other Papyri Suppressed—No Gift
to Translate—Nibley Not An Egyptologist—Dr. Nelson?—
Source of Book of Abraham—Book of Breathings—Written
in Hieratic—Finding the Key—Three Witnesses Against
Book—Dr. Nibley Confused—Nibley Reverses His
Position—Abraham’s Signature—A False Translation—
Basis For Anti-Black Doctrine—From a Hole in the
Papyrus—An Unfinished Work—Complete Confusion—Just
a Memory Device?— “Bushels of Nonsense”—Facing the
Truth—The Facsimiles—Facsimile No. 2—Falsification
Proven—Part A—Part B—Part C—Part D—Part E—Part
F—Part G—Part H—Part I—Parts J and K—Joseph Smith
Responsible— “Cannot Be Revealed”—A Pagan Object—
Facsimile No. 1—Unfamiliar Writing?—Not Unique—The
Interpretation—Changes nn Facsimile—Facsimile No. 3—
Dressed Like Women—A Common Scene—Not Abraham’s
Drawings—Book Of Joseph—Joseph’s Egyptian Alphabet—
“Mere Imagination”—Nibley Repudiates Grammar—
Master Of All Languages—Possible Sources—Imitation
Genesis—Other Sources—The Moment of Truth—The
Browns’ Attack—Nibley’s New Book—More on the God
Min—Return to Old Facsimiles
  1. Old Testament Practices..................................370
Wine And Curses—Animal Sacrifice
  1. Mormon Scriptures and the Bible ..................373
Paine’s Influence—Evidence Compared—Dead Sea
Scrolls—Isaiah Text—Evidence For New Testament—
Papyri Finds—“130,000 Different Readings”—“Inspired
Revisions”—Weak Points—Beyond the Text—“Drastically
Changed”—Revising the Revisions—Conclusion—Updated
Material
  1. Blood Atonement..............................................398
Capital Crimes—Was It Actually Practiced?—Updated
Material
  1. The Word of Wisdom.......................................405
Origin Of Revelation—Joseph’s Example—Joseph’s Bar—
Young’s Distillery—Wine and Visions—Hypocrisy
  1. The Mormon Kingdom....................................414
Council of Fifty—Joseph Made King—Joseph For
President—Brigham Young As King—Church and State
One—No Democratic Elections—Moses Thatcher—Attack
on America—Decline of the Kingdom—Conclusion—
Updated Material
  1. The Danites.......................................................428
Attempted Explanations—Origin of the Danites—Joseph
Smith to Blame—Stealing from the Gentiles—Cutting
Throats—“War of Extermination”—Mormon Crimes—
Joseph Surrenders—Trouble in Illinois—Using the Mean
Devils—Bill Hickman—Orrin Porter Rockwell
  1. Temple Work ....................................................451
Baptism for the Dead—Endless Genealogies—Elijah the
Prophet—All in Vain?—Temple Marriage—Connected With
Polygamy—Sealing in Spite of Sin—A Secret Ceremony—
Updated Material
  1. The Temple Ceremony ....................................462
By a Temple Worker
  1. Changes in the Temple Ceremony ..................474
Bloody Oaths—Oath of Vengeance—Other Changes—
Testimony on Ceremony—Sealing Men to Men—Conclusion
  1. The Temple Ceremony and Masonry.............484
Joseph Becomes a Mason—Masonry in Temple Ritual—Only
One Explanation—Embarrassing Questions—Conclusion
  1. The Mountain Meadows Massacre.................493
The Utah War—The Massacre—After the Massacre—Lee’s
Excommunication—Trial and Execution—Responsibility
For Massacre—Church Opposes Study
  1. Mormonism and Money ..................................516
Church Funds For Private Gain—Young Becomes Rich—
Joseph F. Smith’s Testimony—Over $1,000,000 a Day—Tax
Problems—Control of News Media—No Paid Ministry?—
Church or Business—Updated Material
  1. Speculation, Illegal Banking ...........................528
and Counterfeiting
Speculation—The Kirtland Bank—Disaster—Bankruptcy—
Fraudulent Acts—Counterfeiting—Apostles Indicted—
“Bogus Brigham”—The Whittlers—Government
Records—A Rapid Exodus—Bogus Makers Go West
  1. Blood Flows in Utah.........................................545
Killing the Thieves—Parrish Murders—Young Indicted for
Murder—No Protection in Utah
  1. Miscellaneous History and Doctrine ..............560
Birth Control—Compressed Spirits—Vegetable Spirits—A
Year’s Supply of Food—John Whitmer’s History—The
Living Earth—Changing the Blood
  1. Facing Reality...................................................563
If you want a FREE slightly condensed version of this book, the Tanners have kindly provided a PDF version of their other published book The Changing World of Mormonsim right here:
http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/changecontents.htm
I really wish Admin would add a link to this book on their front page.
Also, see the Tanners' website which provides a wealth of information. The following link is to their topical index:
http://www.utlm.org/navtopicalindex.htm
Every time I see posters come here asking questions about the history, or seeking new books to read about the history, they should all just start with the above because it's probably in the above two books. Mormonism-Shadow or Reality should be the basic textbook for anyone questioning the church or wanting to learn more about the controversial parts of Mormonism.
submitted by Ex-CultMember to exmormon [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 18:00 EmpireOfChairs Capstone for Part 3: Gravity's Rainbow

Hello, everybody! It’s finally time to leave the Zone!
Can you believe that you haven’t even gotten to the most difficult part of the novel yet?
Anyway, I’ve included a massive plot summary here, because the last capstone had one, but this is only for the benefit of new and future readers who are struggling to make sense of the plot threads, and it doesn’t contain any real analysis. If you feel like you understood the gist of what happened already, then feel free to skip it. I am hoping that this summary will elucidate this part of the novel for those who are having trouble following the narrative but still want the opportunity to come to their own conclusions about what it all means.
Throughout In the Zone, I found my real life suddenly full of random obstacles that meant that I couldn’t contribute to as many threads as I would have liked. I would read those other threads and find that things which had fascinated me were either being ignored wholesale or else (I felt) misinterpreted in the comments. As such, I would like to give my thoughts on them here and now, before we leave the Zone and the opportunity to discuss these things is lost.
However, because the plot of In the Zone is so damn long, I’ve decided to do things a little bit differently: I’m going to use this main thread for the summary, and then I’m going to write individual comments on the various parts of In the Zone which I think deserve more analysis before we move on to The Counterforce. The parts I will be analysing will be titled Bianca, Enzian, and The Castle, with associated page numbers based around the 902-page Vintage edition.
Plot Summary:
As you would imagine, I can’t put a lot of detail into a brief summary of what would, on its own, still represent a fairly long novel. I’d like to apologise in advance if I happen to miss anything important, story-wise.
In the Zone opens with Slothrop in his new secret identity as British journalist Ian Scuffling, travelling by train trough the remnants of post-war Germany, the Zone, where he shall remain for most of the book. He meets a racist, jingoistic military man named Major Duane Marvy, who is promptly thrown off the train by a mysterious African ‘rocket-trooper’ named Orbst Enzian. Wandering through the Zone, Slothrop encounters Geli Tripping, a witch with an owl who reveals herself to be the lover of a murderous Soviet cyborg named Tchitcherine, who is involved with finding the Schwarzgerät; a one-of-a-kind V-2 rocket. Having apparently escaped Them, finding out what happened to this rocket then becomes the primary goal of Slothrop – his new epic quest.
Slothrop attempts to infiltrate the Mittelwerke, a vast SS-shaped underground tunnel complex, used by the Nazis to create V-2 rockets using slave-labourers from the nearby Dora concentration camp. He finds the place invaded by Marvy’s army, and the Russians – who both decide to murder Slothrop for discovering what seems to be… an ongoing operation? After his escape, Slothrop finds himself escaping to Berlin via hot-air balloon, only to be hunted by Marvy’s boys once more, but luckily the balloon is filled with custard pies, which are then thrown into the engine of Marvy’s aircraft, presumably killing most of them.
We come to learn more about Enzian, who turns out to have lived previously as a sex-slave to Weissman, a high-ranking German officer who participated in the Herero genocide that wiped out Enzian’s family. As time progressed, Enzian became Weissman’s Monster – the sinister, black right-hand man during his master’s involvement with the development of the V-2 rocket and the mysterious Schwarzgerät. In the Zone, with Weissman’s disappearance, Enzian has taken on a new, commanding role as the leader of the Schwarzkommando – a paramilitary death-cult made up of members of the Erdschweinhöhle (the death-obsessed Herero-survivors scattered throughout various communities in Nordhausen), who have made it their goal to find the Schwarzgerät. He even gets his own right-hand man in the form of the radio-enthusiast Andreas Orukambe. Among the Schwarzkommando, however, there is disagreement – some, like Enzian, believe in the destiny of destruction promised by the Rocket, whilst others, such as Ombindi of the Empty Ones, wish to initiate their own form of ‘racial suicide’, which uses sexual deviancy to ensure a negative birth-rate, which is seen as a triumph of material pleasure over the European ideals of Christian asceticism and death-worship.
Because of his quest to discover the Schwarzgerät, he is by default the arch-nemesis of Tchitcherine. Tchitcherine, we find out, is the long-lost half-brother of Enzian, their father having had a steamy affair with a Herero girl whilst in the midst of deserting the Russo-Japanese War. He grows up into a high-ranking agent of the Leninist Soviet regime, being principally tasked with giving the native people of Kyrgyzstan a new language (the New Turkic Alphabet), which isn’t historically accurate, by the way. During an uprising against conscription in 1916, thousands of native Kazakhs were killed, in an event which Tchitcherine refers to as the Kirghiz Light, which loses him his cosy, bureaucratic job. He is haunted by this light, which he sees as an illumination, a transcendent moment in which he saw the force behind it all. Sent out to the Zone, Tchitcherine has quickly adopted the new role of Rocket-fanatic, believing (like Enzian) that there is a spiritual force to be revealed to him in the Schwarzgerät. He is not entirely sure why his superiors sent him to the Zone, but he is absolutely convinced that it somehow involves Enzian and the Schwarzkommando.
Back to Slothrop, who briefly runs into Enzian again, only to be told, rather ominously, that reality is not real. Enzian, indeed, seems to treat his existence as though they were all conjured into being by some director or writer-God, and that all they can do is follow a pre-determined path to His ending. Weird. Anyway, Slothrop then meets Säure Bummer, the coolest man in the Zone – a proto-hippie drug dealer and money-counterfeiter, who suggests that Slothrop take on the superhero identity of Rocketman (which he does) and then advises him to travel to a bar to meet a contact (Seaman Bodine, the foul-mouthed sailor) who will show Slothrop the way to the Schwarzgerät in exchange for picking up a massive shipment of marijuana – located in the centre of the Potsdam conference. He is then to return with the product, which will be given to an influential Zone personality called der Springer, who will know Slothrop is cool because Säure has given him a chess-piece (a white knight) with which to identify himself. With this potential reward, along with part of the score and one million fake marks, Slothrop decides to haul ass to the conference. He invents another disguise (Max Schelpzig, the name on the fake ID which brought him to Europe in the first place) and sets forth, first by taking a boat into the Russian sector and then running on foot through an Autobahn, jumping the barricade into Potsdam. He gets the dope eventually, after a few awkward encounters with politicians and a few epic stealth moves, and then returns to his boat, where he is then drugged and dragged away, unconscious. Turns out, Tchitcherine has been watching him the whole time, and has just drugged him with the truth-serum/LSD stand-in Sodium Amytal.). He then tries out a huge chunk of Slothrop’s product with his right-hand man, Dzaqyp Qulan, and dumps Slothrop in an abandoned film studio. Waking up, Slothrop encounters Greta Erdmann, a pre-war pornographic actress, who is searching the studio in the hopes of finding her daughter, Bianca, who was conceived at this very studio, with a man named Max Schelpzig, during the filming of German director der Springer’s movie Alpdrücken. Slothrop confides that he isn’t so sure that he’s not in a movie right now.
Meanwhile, the Argentinian anarchists of Squalidozzi find themselves in a submarine, longing for the Zone to become a permanently decentralised monument to the freedom of the individual, in stark contrast from what is happening back home, in their native Buenos Aires. They believe in the power of art to inspire revolution, and desire to work with der Springer to create a film version of Martin Fierro which will force their revolution into existence – just as his propaganda films seemed to will the Schwarzkommando into existence.
Quite the opposite kind of person is then introduced to us: Franz Pökler, a Nazi engineer who worked on the V-2 rocket and the Schwarzgerät under the command of Weissman (now calling himself Captain Blicero). Pynchon shows us basically all of Pökler’s adult life, in a non-linear order. What happens, in short, is this: Pökler is inspired to become a rocket-engineer after taking university lectures in chemistry via Laszlo Jamf, the Pavlovian who somehow conditioned Slothrop as a baby to get erections during V-2 rocket strikes, decades before the V-2 was invented. He marries Leni Pökler, a communist reactionary who will drift apart from him as Weimar Germany becomes the hotseat for a new form of Evil. After watching the late-night premiere of Alpdrücken, Pökler runs home and impregnates Leni with their only child, Ilse. Raising her, he feels compelled to instil within her a desire to travel to the Moon, which is handily reinforced with frequent visits to Zwölfkinder, an amusement park run entirely by children. With Leni gone, Pökler falls deep into his work for the Nazis. As time goes on, he begins to question the nature of his work – is what he is doing just as Evil as what They are doing? Blicero and the other higher-ups catch wind of this, and, to prevent sabotage, Ilse is removed from Pökler’s life. He realises that bringing up the topic will result in termination, possibly of his life, and so he keeps on with the rocket work. He then sees Ilse again, delivered to him at his office without a note, and is advised to go to Zwölfkinder with her, which he does. She disappears the next day. This happens year after year on the same day, with Pökler gradually developing a harrowing fear that she died in the first year, and was replaced by a similar-looking girl. On their final visit to Zwölfkinder, after the Nazi defeat, they find the park empty, and ‘Ilse’ no longer likes the Moon. She tells him that they will no meet again. He returns to the office to find that it has been bombed to smithereens – interesting, isn’t it, how this just so happened to occur on the same day that Pökler goes on his holiday? Bewildered, Pökler travels to the location that Ilse and Leni were supposedly being held, only to find himself in the middle of the Dora concentration camp.
We then encounter the quick story of Horst Achtfaden, another Nazi engineer who, whilst on-board a possibly imaginary “Toiletship” vessel, is captured by Enzian and the Schwarzkommando, who demand that he reveal to them the location of the Schwarzgerät. Deciding that the entire War was just a big joke and that it definitely isn’t worth dying for, he claims that he has no idea what they are talking about, but that there was a colleague named Narrisch who worked directly on the project, so maybe bother him instead.
Back to Slothrop, who is now following the slightly unhinged Greta Erdmann’s lead as she follows a hunch that she hopes will lead straight to Bianca. This leads to a coastal town near the Lüneberg Heath, where the glimpse of a shrouded figure in the mist sends Greta into hysterics before it disappears. As evening approaches, a party-boat named the Anubis drifts by the coast. Upon seeing it, Greta becomes convinced that Bianca is on-board, and jumps into the water after it. Slothrop swims after her, losing his entire Rocketman costume to the sea as he does so. He discovers that the ship is a massive upper-class, elite society orgy vessel - people are indulging in the most depraved sexual acts he has ever seen, all the time, all over the place. And as the night wades on, the centrepiece of this orgy commences – a young girl (Bianca) performs half of a Shirley Temple routine before being publicly humiliated and whipped by Erdmann, her mother. The following morning, Bianca enters Slothrop’s room and the two have sex. Later, a Japanese people-watcher named Ensign Morituri, who lived on the same coastal town that Slothrop was at when they saw the Anubis, relates the horrible truth of Erdmann’s past life. In the lead-up to her time with Slothrop, Erdmann, a fellow native of the town, had gradually gone insane with her partner Gerhardt von Goll, believing herself (for some reason) to be part-Jewish. As some sort of psychotic payback against the Nazis, she began dressing in a shroud and luring the local children out to the swamps, where she would role-play with them (her as Nazi, child as Jew) before drowning them. The figure Erdmann saw earlier is revealed to be a grown-up version of one of the few survivors of her serial-killings – a survivor only because Morituri was there to stop her.
Later, Slothrop endeavours to find Erdmann after she locks herself in her room out of guilt. However, she reveals that her guilt is out of a completely unrelated event – during her time at the Heath, she became the sexual associate of Captain Blicero, who is revealed to have gone insane whilst pursuing some kind of apocalyptic project with a sex-slave (a young boy named Gottfried, who has mysteriously disappeared…) and has now come to see himself as a mythic figure in a fantasy world, running through a different version of Germany from everyone else. During her career as a sex-icon, Blicero took Greta to a remote room in a petrochemical plant, filled with politicians and business tycoons, who introduced her to clothing made entirely out of a new form of plastic – she finds it so stimulating that she wanted to immediate get down and dirty with those around her, but was just as quickly led out of the room again, and, over time, left with a growing concern that she witnessed the birth of something too horrible to really get to the bottom of.
Shortly after this encounter, a major storm hits the Anubis, and many of the passengers, including Slothrop, find themselves thrown head-first into the Sea. Slothrop seems content that the ‘Fascist cargo’ of the ship will soon drown to death. Of course, he is not included – he is soon picked up by an illegal smuggler and sweet old lady called Frau Gnahb, who travels with her young descendant Otto. Reaching land the following morning, Slothrop quickly finds a white-suited man calling himself der Springer, who (after Slothrop shows him Säure’s chess-piece) reveals himself to be none other than Gerhardt von Goll. He is travelling with his friend, an ex-scientist named Narrisch. They all then hop on-board to journey to Peenemunde, where von Goll is immediately arrested by Russian authorities. Narrisch, angered by the whole thing, then forces Slothrop to accompany him as they do another deep-cover infiltration, this time of the Tchitcherine’s military base where they are keeping von Goll. Freeing von Goll, who is on Sodium Amytal, Slothrop finds himself kocking a guard unconscious and taking his uniform. Then, Slothrop and Narrisch run into Tchitcherine and Qulan, where they all get very confused about the uniforms, thus buying enough time for von Goll’s escape. Narrisch then decides to stay behind to fight off the Russians, to allow Frau Gnahb and the gang to get away safely.
Then, to Slothrop’s horror, they once more find the Anubis, where Slothrop is told that he will find his stash to give to von Goll in the engine room. Going on-board, he finds that no-one on the ship remembers or recognises him at all. He gets to the engine room, where the lights go out completely, and voices proceed to taunt and beat him. Frightened, he looks up to find the corpse of Bianca hanging from a noose, just above the stash. He gets it and runs, finding invisible hands grabbing his own as he tries to climb the ladder out of there.
Meanwhile, two older characters, Katje and Pirate, find themselves entwined with a counter-revolutionary force after the destruction of the White Visitation. Katje discovers a film by Osbie Feel which seems to reveal to her the whole Plan and how to combat it, whilst Pirate, on the other hand, has a psychic vision in which he discovers that people of those whom he had trusted are actually parts of Them, and, what’s worse, They know that he is watching them. Both Katje and Pirate begin to form a vague hope of something that can defeat Them, some kind of Counterforce…
Wandering homeless around the Zone again, Slothrop begins to wonder about his own family history, and the environmental damage wrought by his family’s paper company. Furthermore, he thinks back to his first American ancestor, William Slothrop, a pig-loving anti-establishment figure whose political pamphlet was burned on-masse by the Elite, and was then forced to return, defeated, to England. Slothrop once more meets both Marvy and the Schwarzkommando, neither of whom recognise him in the Russian uniform. We soon find out that Marvy is now in league with the Soviets, who have been extracting information about the Schwarzgerät from Narrisch and selling it back to Marvy. While this is going on, Slothrop finds Cuxhaven, where the local children ask him to become their mythical pig-hero, Plechazunga, as part of a pagan festival. Crashed by the cops, Slothrop takes refuge with a teenage girl, who wishes to escape with him, but refuses to leave when the time comes. Slothrop, on the road again, finds a slightly mad German child who demands that Slothrop help him find his lemming, which they fail to do, but Slothrop himself finds a pig, who accompanies him on his journey, which is interrupted by one evening in which Slothrop finds a fellow homeless wanderer named Franz Pökler, who he finds strangely relatable.
Meanwhile, we get to hear about Lyle Bland. Bland was a member of the Masons, though he did not care about the society in the same way that the other Masons seemed to. However, as time went on, he felt that he understood their rites and rituals in a way that the real members never did. He became connected to arcane magickal forces, creating nightly out-of-body experiences, saying on his deathbed that he would choose that night to break through to the Other Side and achieve transcendence. Bland’s life prior to this event was a mish-mash of government deals with mobsters, with the conniving blackmail techniques of intelligence agencies, with the grand conspiracies of international technology tycoons. This last one seems particularly interesting, don’t you think? Bland thinks so too, and he actually has quite a pet passion for a remarkable scheme involving pinball machines that are built to fail – the machines will, in fact, fail immediately after they are fixed. How? Good question.
The final Slothrop scene of In the Zone shows him once more with Bodine, running away from American troops and straight into a mansion which happens to be hosting the party of the century. Ditching his pig-costume in a closet, he takes up in a bedroom with a prostitute named Solange, who is actually Leni Pökler in a new identity. Meanwhile, Bodine runs into Major Marvy, who is here to have sex with a minority so that he can live out a racist power-fantasy. Bodine gives Marvy a vial of cocaine, which Marvy then stashes into his jacket. Later, the mansion is raided by American troops – Marvy, having sex with a minority, freaks it because of the coke he left in his pocket, runs to the closet to find the jacket, only to discover that his whole uniform is missing – the only outfit he can put on to escape is some sort of pig costume. The American troops then find him, ask him if he is Tyrone Slothrop, which Marvy agrees to, hoping that Slothrop hasn’t done anything too bad. He is then kidnapped and dragged into the woods by Muffage and Spontoon, the two hitmen hired by Pointsmen in a previous part of the book to find Slothrop, who proceed to drug and castrate Marvy.
The final section features Mossmoon and Scammony, two government boys back in England who gossip about Pointsman’s career ruination over the castration of Marvy, and the collapse of the whole Scheme. They uneasily discuss the role of homosexuality in government conspiracies. They reveal, finally, what Slothrop was supposed to do in Their Grand Scheme. He was supposed to begin the extermination of the black race. Oh well, they think. If he can’t do it, They will just have to develop different methods.
In the Zone ends on, or around, August 6th 1945 – the date of the atomic bomb strike on Hiroshima. It is also the celebration the Transfiguration.
Discussion Questions:
· Has it occurred to you that most of the dialogue in these sections would have been spoken in German?
· Why do you think the novel is divided into four parts, and what do you think separates them?
· What do you make of the use of the Wizard of Oz quote that begins this section? Quite interesting, especially considering that this is the only epigram that seems to have no reference point in the actual novel.
· What has changed between the beginning and the end of In the Zone?
· Many have expressed the view that Gravity’s Rainbow is not about WWII at all. In fact, Gravity’s Rainbow is about Vietnam. How do you feel about that interpretation, given the focus on the Zone here? More importantly, what does In the Zone tell us about the world in 1973?
· Do you believe that Gravity’s Rainbow is at all autobiographical?
· Why do you think Slothrop keeps becoming a superhero in these sections? What do superheroes and comic books mean to Pynchon?
· Some people have pointed out, with a particular focus on the episodes in which Slothrop wakes up in the studio and Katje finds Osbie Feel’s movie, that the plot is actually a giant film. How does that strike you, and how do you think that metafiction and the introduction of alternative mediums relates to the themes of In the Zone?
· In the Zone makes up literally half of the book. But why? What’s so important about it that could not expressed elsewhere?
· For that matter, what do you make of the Zone itself? Why do you think he wrote a book around it?
· Does Pynchon evoke the imagery of ghosts, magic, angels, demons, telepathy and other phenomena with genuine sincerity, or are we supposed to take these as metaphors for more grounded events?
· This section is far more epic in scope than the two preceding it. Did you encounter anything cool or interesting that you think we forgot about in the discussion threads?
· What do you make of the Rocket-cartel, and what do think Their grand plan actually is?
· What was your favourite episode of this part? Also, what was your favourite Pynchon-tangent or speech?
Previous Threads:
Sections 30-33
Sections 34-37
Sections 38-40
Sections 41-45
Sections 46-48
Sections 49-53
Sections 54-57
Sections 58-61
submitted by EmpireOfChairs to ThomasPynchon [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 23:37 Garvinfred Interested in coming to Burning Man in 2021? This is your Reddit Survival Guide! Read this first before you post a question!

Before you read any further, no one has any idea if Burning Man will exist in 2021 (or even 2022). The below information is what this sub posted in prior years, which was helpful. No has any idea if any of this will be true, accurate or helpful for future years. No one knows. But at least it’ll get you started. In the meantime, watch this video to experience the joy of 2019 Burning Man: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4hL7t8cfus and hold off on buying any plane tickets until you know 2021 will happen.
If you're a first time burner or first time poster read through this before you post. It may answer the question you were thinking of making a new thread about (and many more you didn't know you had!). Over time this post will get the occasional update as things change and new and updated information becomes available.
  1. If you haven't already you should READ THE OFFICIAL BURNING MAN SURVIVAL GUIDE! (https://survival.burningman.org/). Seriously.
  2. Got kids coming along? Read the Burning Man Official Family Survival Guide: https://z9hbb3mwou383x1930ve0ugl-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/BurningMan_Family_SurvivalGuide.pdf). Kidsville has its own survivial guide: https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=14OtP0p7IxGcWhbr0yrbhUuHEo271Njx-mSingO4TTX4
  3. Read the Survival Guide again. It's required reading for the event so you may as well get that done. The First Timers Guide (https://burningman.org/event/preparation/first-timers-guide/) is also required reading if you've never been before. And of course the Preparation Guide (https://burningman.org/event/preparation/) will answer a lot of your questions.
  4. There's also a whole heap of info and links in the sidebar of this sub right over there --->
  5. Please do a search of this subreddit (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/search?q=&restrict_sr=on&sort=relevance&t=all) before you post a question to avoid asking something that has already been answered a bunch of times. If you start a thread that could have been answered by using any of the above resources you'll likely catch snark. And you'll kinda deserve it. Radical self reliance is one of the principles after all.
Ticket Info:
• No ticket information for 2021 has been announced. The ticket info announcement date varies each year but we have no idea what will happen for 2021 or 2022. A guess is that some update will be given by January or February 2021 at the latest. Info on tickets can be found at https://tickets.burningman.org.
• Read this (https://eplaya.burningman.org/viewtopic.php?f=464&t=76740) on how to avoid being scammed when buying a ticket in the aftermarket. Buyer beware for fakes and scams and if the deal seems to good to be true, it probably is.
• See this announcement (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/4wuwa2/from_bm_ticketing_scam_alert/) from Burning Man Ticketing about a common scam.
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Events, Parties & Workshops
• The events guide for 2021 will eventually be here in its entirety: https://playaevents.burningman.org/2021/playa_events/1 (Pro tip: the book you get at greeters contains only a very small portion of the scheduled events). This website compiles all the events in a giant printable Excel spreadsheet shortly before the Burning Week starts: http://www.justin-klein.com/playaevents-excel-exporte. Wanna know what you missed in 2019? Have at it: https://playaevents.burningman.org/2019/playa_events/01/. Wanna know what you missed in 2020? Go here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1sJmmz5x_AM
• Lots of famous DJs play at Burning Man but the burn is NOT a music festival. There are no main stages and the majority of folks who attend aren't just there to chase DJs. For these and other reasons, camps and art cars are encouraged not to announce/promote their lineups until just before the burn. Rockstarlibrarian.com produces an unofficial guide that, when it comes out, will be your best source of info on who is playing where and when. Patience! It gets released just before the event.
Bring Art!
• The Honorarium process (free money from Burning Man!) for creating, making and bring art to Burning Man. Submit a letter of intent by the deadline or lose out on the free cash (that, of course, comes with strings, but free cash!): https://burningman.org/culture/burning-man-arts/grants/brc-honoraria/. No idea if this will still exist.
• Want to bring art without going through the Honoraria process! It’s easy and fun and everyone should do it. The process starts here: https://profiles.burningman.org/participate/brc/
• Need some inspiration or curious as to what types of art to bring? Skim through the placed art for 2018 and 2019: https://burningman.org/event/brc/2019-art-installations/ and https://burningman.org/culture/history/brc-history/event-archives/2018-event-archive/2018-art-installations/. Want to know what art was "brought" in 2020? Go to https://brcvr.org/
• Your art can be big or small, have fire or not, and the Burning Man ARTery (the art department) is helpful and there to help you bring art to the playa: https://journal.burningman.org/2018/08/black-rock-city/participate-in-brc/the-joy-of-small-art/
Volunteer!
• Want to get involved but not sure where or how? Start here: https://burningman.org/network/get-involved/volunteering-bmp/ and https://burningman.org/event/volunteering/teams/
Coming from far away or want to stay close to home?
https://regionals.burningman.org/regionals/
https://regionals.burningman.org/
The Reddit Meet-Up:
• There will likely be one on Wednesday during the event at the camp called Automatic Subconscious. Something may or may not get announced here so check the above events website when the time comes. There will be booze and probably only mildly annoying music. Come enjoy the dusty floor and the views from the Automatic Subconscious nest. Search Reddit meetup in this sub to meet those who in the past remembered to show up.
Placement:
• Find your Facebook friends on playa with Burner Map: https://burnermap.com/welcome.php
• Check out the Unofficial BRC Map: http://unofficialbrcmap.com.
• There are other unofficial apps for placements and events: https://iburnapp.com/. In 2019 Burning Man had its own app so you can create your personalized list of events and places to go.
GENERAL INFO/FAQ
• We previously had a whole bunch of questions about yurts (and yurt tape) so check out these threads (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/search?q=yurt&sort=new&restrict_sr=on&t=all) before starting one of your own please.
• Going Solo is a topic that comes up super often, so much so this thread (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/4uyhww/should_i_go_to_burning_man_solo/)popped up recently. This one (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/4so7js/potentially_being_bailed_on_last_minute_solo_tips/) also has good tips. And this one (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/4dk11b/has_anyone_gone_solo/) and this one (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/448qpn/is_burning_man_a_good_place_to_visit_solo/). Did we mention there’s a search button?
• Joining a camp is NOT a requirement. If you do it should be because you're excited about their playa gift and you want to help them give it, not because they'll feed and shelter you. Your best best for finding a camp to join is checking out the appropriate part of ePlaya (https://eplaya.burningman.org/viewforum.php?f=523) and the Burning Man website: https://burningman.org/event/camps/so-you-want-to-camp-at-burning-man Other great threads worth checking out
• Playa misconceptions (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/1rjtcu/playa_misconception_thread/)
• What to expect your first few hours on (and on the way to) playa (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/299b3y/what_to_expect_your_first_few_hours_on_and_on_the/)
• Advice you won't find in the "official" guides (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/1v49r7/advice_you_wont_find_in_the_official_guides/)
• Disasters at Burning Man (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/3rp7ze/disasters_at_burning_man/)
• What are your can't-live-without playa lifesavers? (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/3ec9l3/what_are_your_cantlivewithout_playa_lifesavers/)
• Or do you just need a bunch of Burning Man stories on a cold night while sipping warm pickle juice? (https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/comments/6a6p35/what_is_burning_man/)
Weekly Topics
• This sub previously had weekly topics of discussion that were SUPER and extraordinarily useful. Go to this Google Doc with links to all the threads: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/14peyHqVLJdhmB4RokQKBBoqAHAvjoMSo-DR04By2ohM/edit#gid=0. This is a wonderful resource if you have the time to read through it all or it you are looking for info on a particular topic. Pretty much every question you may have is answered here and the answers are pretty timeless.
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DO NOT post a link to a fundraiser without reading our guidelines first: https://www.reddit.com/BurningMan/wiki/fundraising. Failure to do so could result in your thread being deleted or you getting some less than pleasant feedback. Fundraiser posts must be marked with a “fundraiser” flair (once you post, go back to your post and you’ll see this option).
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Other than that, welcome to the dust. (with gratitude to jovankat, from whom I blatantly copied most of the above and kept the original Australian term "heap").
submitted by Garvinfred to BurningMan [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 11:54 pog99 Ryan Faulk distorts Segregation/Jim Crow.

See the original article and the garbage it inspired.
If you were to find the about page of his blog, you would know that he defends the blog from promoting white supremacy by simply reporting the facts. A strict reading could put together that it doesn't mean that one couldn't defend or rationalize past systems of white supremacy. I've recently revisited and clarified the issues of his Slave trade article, and soon I plan on talking about multiple issues with his slavery article as well, so today I will do the same with this one.
The running theme of the piece is that disparities during Jim Crow either couldn't be explained specifically by segregation, or that disparities came larger after the 1960s thus segregation as a factor is ruled out. The problems are that -
  1. For each aspect that he measures, he doesn't tie it to a specific expert claim on how Segregation played a role in the disparity.
  2. He doesn't account for post-1960s factors that causes the persisting or larger disparity, and assumes post-1960s is a systematically neutral control.
  3. For certain disparities he compares, they are inappropriate and are not indicative of what he purports.
And for the record, no, he doesn't actually talk about voting or juror restriction by race.
The article-
We first get a rationalization of his analysis.
When I was younger, I would read world atlases. And sometimes I would come to an article, say an article on the country Colombia, and it would say that Colombia is a world leader in coffee production, then list off some other “cash crops”. Then it would go into the growing textiles sector, and mention that it has some problem with debt. Maybe it’s a leading producer of phosphates as well or something. And if you read all of this qualitative, subjective description, you would never realize that Colombia was poor. It’s not until you got to “per capita GDP” that you would discover that it was $3,000 per capita.
You could also have someone qualitatively describe a football game between Auburn and Alabama. And they could do highlights, and describe some of the big plays, and you wouldn’t know that Alabama completely steamrolled Auburn until you looked at the box score.
Or imagine if your son was “describing” qualitatively and subjectively how he was doing in his classes. As a parent you don’t care, you want to see the damn grades.
And so the effects of segregation on blacks. What does the data say? Because in school when segregation is taught, it’s the equivalent of describing a football game by just looking at the highlights and not the box score. It’s cat-lady storytime.
Well, there are a few big go-to topics that popped into my mind to try to quantify the effects of segregation on blacks: cops and courts, schools, income and lynching. So that’s what I go-to’d.

1. Incarceration rate
The incarceration rate for blacks relative to whites has increased at least since 1930, probably long before that. So in terms of blacks being targeted for being sent to prison, it looks like they were substantially less targeted compared to today.
So if the legal systems were unfair during segregation, they appear to be even more unfair today. Or perhaps they weren’t unfair during segregation, are unfair today, or perhaps the laws are different today in a way that disparately impacts blacks more than they did in the past.
There are all sorts of things we can speculate, but it’s not immediately or obviously apparent, from the data, that the legal system was particularly keen on incarcerating blacks compared to today.
So for those of you more keen on race and mass incarceration, you would know that this is particularly strong in Northern Urban regions rather than the South. A whole demographic transition occurred that accounted for it.
Not to mention he never actually looked for studies that purport to address biases during Jim Crow. What does he find through is roundabout ways?
2. Prison sentences
For prison sentences, the numbers have been remarkably stable. When you look at length of prison terms for blacks compared to whites after the FIRST release from prison, it’s very close.
The first release data is important because none of these are repeat offenders. Repeat offenders get more time, and blacks are more likely to be repeat offenders.
That said, based on the data below, blacks serve roughly ~15% longer prison terms for their first term. It could be because the crimes blacks commit within each category are, on average, more severe. It could be racial bias on the part of judges.
Or it could be that blacks have worse courtroom behavior, as when IQ is controlled for, the racial gap in prison sentences goes away.
But what you don’t see is blacks having longer prison sentences during segregation.
Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in State and Federal Prisons
Now what if we looked at median prison time served just in the South, and back in 1937 – smack in the middle of “Jim Crow” – and included repeat offenders, of which black inmates are a higher proportion today? The result is not that much different from the entire US today:
Black Multiple of White Median Time Served For ALL Releases in 14 Southern States in State and Federal Prisons
Remember, the 1937 data is JUST from the South, supposedly the hot seat of bigotry, and includes repeat offenders.
Homicide data is an unweighted average of each category. In 1937 and 1952 they used Murder and Manslaughter, in 1964 they just had Homicide, and in 2009 they had Murder, Negligent Manslaughter and Non-Negligent Manslaughter.
In case you think I am cherry-picking the years to paint a particular narrative, these are literally just the years used in the Bureau of Justice report I am citing.
And so what we can see is that the black-white incarceration gap is wider today than it was in 1930. In addition, the racial gap in sentence length for first offenders does not appear to have changed at all. Even the data that INCLUDED repeat offenders just in the South in 1937 doesn’t differ that much from the first-time offender data nationally and later.
And so this makes the idea that the current US legal system was more biased against blacks during segregation than it is today SEEM false.
So this is a good example of a data point that doesn't correspond to a specific Civil Rights claim for Jim Crow relative to the post-1960s. Mass incarceration is usually shown as being a post 1960s phenomenon of bias as a particular, in connection to Blacks increasing presence in the North. His source supports it. On page 88.
The median time served for the total was 17 days. For blacks the median was 2 days longer, 19 days. Interestingly, there were larger differences between whites and blacks in time served in the North than in the South. The median time served in the North for whites was 18 days and for blacks a full week longer, 25 days. In the South the median was 17 days for blacks and 16 days for whites. Looking at time served by offense, these differences continue.
Typical civil rights claims are in regard the lack of Black Jurors deals with not simply length of prison time but biases towards choosing conviction by a white jury relative to a comparable white defendant, which this doesn't study.
Therefore, the proper way how to study this would be conviction rates in the same region overtime, such as the South, and compared between different types of juries and defendants. I lack data on this, but one form of bias I have found was application of the death Penalty for rape in the South from the 1930s to the 1960s was harsher not just for Black Criminals, but for Black criminals accused ofraping whites. In further detail, 13% of Black rapists in 11 southern states received the death penalty compared to 2% of whites.
Decreases in overall non-white (likely black) executions, by his source, decreased sharply after the 1960s. Overtime, rates of executions decreased even though crime increased into this period. Mind you, there were death penalty changes around this time.
This source, btw, contains a variety of measurements by race during Jim Crow into the present that could suggest bias outside of merely prison sentences.

3. Lynching
A related topic to this is lynching. From Richard M. Perloff, Professor of Communication at Cleveland State University:
“Approximately 4,742 individuals were lynched between 1882 and 1968; of the victims, 3,445 or 73 percent were Black.”
All lynchings were in response to a claimed offense, such as a rape or stealing cattle. Blacks were 72.65% of all recorded lynchings while being ~26.87% of the population of the South at the time.
The Black population of the Southern US 1880-1970 averages 26.87% at each decade. And so based on their population alone, if lynchings were race-neutral, and we knew nothing about race differences in violent crime going in, we would expect 26.87% of all lynchings to be of blacks. Blacks comprised 72.65% of all lynchings, giving them a representation 2.70 times their population.
However, according to wikipedia, most lynchings occurred between 1882 and 1920, and during that time period the average black population was 31.76% of the southern US population. Using this number, blacks as a percentage of lynchings are only 2.29 times their percentage of the population.
If we split the difference and just say that the black population of the south was 29.32% of the total population, then blacks as a percentage of lynchings was 2.48 times their percentage of the population.
By comparison, in 2010, blacks comprised 12.6% of the total US population, but were 38.13% of the population charged for violent crimes, giving them a representation 3.03 times their population.
And so by raw numbers the lynch mobs appear to be slightly less racially targeting than the current US legal system is. Here are those numbers put in a table:
So when I first read this I thought he was comparing lynchings to police shootings. The second time shows me how asinine he is. This is a good example of an inappropriate comparison.
Being charged with a crime isn't the same as a lynching, lynchings are categorized by the source he originally used for sentencing as an execution, one of the trends that decreased in rates for blacks and as established was higher in the South in ways suggestive of bias.
From his source-
Almost three-fourths (73 percent) of those lynched between 1890 and 1962 (the date of the last recorded lynching) were black, and in the same period, 54 percent of those executed were nonwhite. About 90 percent of those dying under State authority were executed for homicide. Only 41 percent of illegal lynchings were for homicide (Tables 2-1 and 2-2).
This is more or less consistent with my studies showing that, in the South, rape (the next largest portion of lynching offenses After Homicide) was disproportionately applied to black men with death.
Lynchings, as well decreased in accordance with campaigning against it as established in my Dwight Murphey post. This would be an example of civil rights interacting with oppression.

4. Income
This is where arguments regarding the negative effects of segregation start to have some backing in data. Looking at census data from 1948, we can see that black income as a proportion of white income went from around 44% in 1948 to about 80% in 2000. This looks like a massive effect from desegregation on it’s face:
📷
However, there is some interesting data from 1880. If you just look within regions, the racial gap is much less. At that time, black workers earned on median 37% of what white workers earned. However, if you just looked at the south, blacks earned 58% of what white workers earned. So just with that regional control we’re already almost half way to the current black-white income ratio.
Population and wage income by race and region in 1880
But the paper did something else – it looked at black labor income relative to whites, but just looked a rural southern whites and blacks, and only looked at labor income. And in that instance, black income was 89% of white income:
📷
And so when you look at the same region, and the same kind of work, and just compare the wages of workers, the black-white income gap in the rural South was only 11%, lower than it is today. And that difference could very plausibly be due to blacks having fewer skills on average in 1880.
I would be interested to see similar thin slices just looking at urban blacks in the south vs. urban whites in the south, and urban blacks in the north to urban whites in the north. I suspect that the more you held constant region and urban/rural divide, the smaller the racial gap would be.
Which is to say, that it seems like much of the black-white income gap could have been a function of blacks living in rural areas (which were poorer back then) and living in the south (which was poorer back then).
In addition, we can see that the narrowing of the black-white income gap roughly corresponds with blacks moving out of the south. This is not a 1:1 correlation, but it is does suggest that simply moving out of the south), which began in earnest around 1910, is part of the explanation for the narrowing of the black-white income gap:
📷
And in the north, where more of the blacks were slaves who had earned their freedom before 1865, black wages as a proportion of white wages were higher. In fact blacks in the north were wealthier than whites in the south for quite some time.
Moreover, the narrowing of the black-white income gap at the national level occurred almost entirely during segregation. So to say that the smaller amount of narrowing that occurred following desegregation was in fact a result of desegregation is something that sounds kinda plausible – there’s certainly a little story you can tell – but there’s very little data for it. The most you could say is that there was a brief acceleration of the narrowing of the black-white income gap immediately after 1965, but that could be a coincidence, and even if you want to say it was a result of the civil rights act, then the acceleration versus a continuation of the previous trend is still only going to be like 2%.
Now as for why the black-white income gap narrowed from 1948 (at least) to 2000, that’s another topic. I suspect much of it has to do with the economic rise of the south and the migration of blacks away from the rural economy. Also this higher income may not have corresponded with a rise in living standards relative to whites since the cost of living may have increased, but that’s more speculative. But desegregation doesn’t appear to have any relevance to it.
So even the narrowing of the black-white income gap, long touted as prime evidence that segregation was previously suppressing black wages, the evidence is not so clear on that.
So, he decreased the gap however in a way that was not applied to the modern gap, therefore makes his comparison null.
He spends most of this section explaining factors pertaining to geography and the like explaining the gap, even though it's existence is tied to both slavery and the economic and educational limitations of the South for Blacks. This can be seen in the lack of second generation benefits of white migrants relative to black migrants, those born in the North being positively selected for those returning to the South, and the steeper reduction in poverty among southern Blacks due to migrants that returned to the South.
Likewise, despite his claims that Northern Blacks being richer than Southern Whites, he doesn't produce a chart or study showing that.
5. Wealth and Employment
Two more things to consider is that up until the 1950’s blacks had employment rates similar to that of whites. And the unemployment rate in blacks grew much more after 1965:
📷
And in terms of wealth, black wealth as a proportion of white wealth has remained stagnant since 1963:
Moreover, I would say that the absolute disparity is more important than the black-white ratio. Because lets say you have $10 and Bob has $100. That’s a $90 gap. Depending on your job, that’s a day’s wage, or half a day’s wage. Now if you have $100 and Bob has $900, now you’re looking at multiple days’ wage. And so on and so on. So even though the relation is the same, the practical importance of the gap is growing. Also just the total dollar amount difference is increasing. And these are all in “2013 dollars”, which adjusts for inflation.
And so when people say that the relative economic situation of blacks has improved relative to whites since segregation, they’re looking at one thing: nominal income at the national level. They’re not looking at employment, at wealth, or how much, if at all, the income gap has narrowed when controlling for what region of the country we’re looking at, or if it’s urban or rural.
While this is worth pointing out, it fails to account for complex factors of the great migration. While gains were present, unemployment increased due to urban living and relatively higher demands in skill compared to the South. This can be seen by actually referencing the study he pulls the chart from, where changes in unemployment occur earlier and become starker outside of the South.
What is also interesting his how an earlier study done by one of the researchers of the 1999 study he cites notes how human capital can't explain as much of the gap in the North as it can in the South.
6. Schools
Another argument that segregation depressed black economic success is their lower school funding. On average, from 1890 to 1950, the average of how much each state spent on black schools as a proportion of what they spent on white schools was 56.96%. So they had less funding.
But funding for what? For “better teachers”? What’s a “better teacher”? What has been found in the US is that increased real spending on schools has not increased overall performance since the 1970s, and more importantly voucher studies have shown that the school an individual goes to has no real impact on either GPA, standardized test scores or future college attendance.
So the fact that additional funding didn’t matter in 1970 is one thing. But did it matter from 1870 to 1954?
Well, we don’t have regular standardized tests from that time period, but we do have a nationally representative IQ test done in 1917 for all US army conscripts for World War 1. In it blacks scored a median of 83 compared to the white score that was set to 100. Today the black median is still at 85. Okay, two points. And my guess is they were hollow for “g” anyway.
Certainly there were journalists at the time who did “investigative journalism” and wrote anecdotal reports of how bad the black schools were. Michael Moore does “investigative journalism” today too about how great the Cuban healthcare system is. Walter Duranty visited the USSR in the 1930s and came back writing glowing reviews of the benevolent, if firm, policies of Stalin.
Maybe they were telling the truth, maybe they were making things up, who knows.
Black schools were probably worse But the question is how much worse really? And for most people, did it even matter? Most of what people learn in school they forget anyway, so aside from literacy and basic math, the practical importance of school would be minimal for most people at that time.
And the culture of school credentials as a signal to employers hadn’t developed yet, so at the time any “educational disadvantages” blacks had, whatever they were and if any, would not matter in terms of credential-signaling because that hadn’t developed yet, and in terms of knowledge beyond basic literacy and math – that all gets forgotten anyway.
So....lets review.
  1. He could've mentioned the Coleman Report but didn't. This is a pretty major study in this particular field of social science, so for Faulk to miss something crucial to grounding his point only demonstrates his lack of familiarity with the material.
  2. I'm going to to assume, since the link is dead, that the studies referenced in that link doesn't account for how money is spent.
  3. His study cites work from a cosumer behavior course, not actual studies on schools.
  4. A recent study shows that for Jim Crow, school quality accounts for the majority of the wage gap for the era.
  5. Actual tracking of changes in school quality supports the conclusion.
  6. Previous data given regarding the Great Migration would indicate that education and a market to use it made generational different for blacks, even considering selection.
7. Countrymen?
This section is a bit of a digression. In a broader sense, blacks weren’t seen as legitimate countrymen to some extent for some time in the region. And so since the blacks were viewed as “foreigners” to southern whites, who to some extent viewed northern whites as foreigners as well, they didn’t think they owed the blacks equal school funding any more than they owed people from Peru or Romania or China equal school funding.
I.e. the black-white gap in school funding meant as much to them as the american-chinese gap in school funding, as both the Chinese and the blacks were foreign to the southern whites.
Now you can have whatever opinion you want about it, and say that blacks were rightful countrymen of southern whites, and really pound your fists in self-righteous certainty about it because you “know it to be true”. That’s certainly your viewpoint.
But understand that it is just your viewpoint, and when you realize that the southern whites viewed blacks the way we look at illegal immigrants today, and that the times during which either repatriation of blacks to Africa or creating a separate black country out of land in the US were serious proposals were still in living memory at the time.
Today blacks have been part of the US for so long that such proposals probably seem bizarre to you. And they would bizarre and cruel if implemented today. But also remember that the US had to impose military governments in the south in order to pass the 14th amendment that gave the blacks citizenship. And Oregon, New Jersey and Ohio renounced their ratification of the 14th amendment after the fact in protest of this action.
Obviously is was a symbolic gesture, but it showed that opposition to the way the 14th amendment was passed wasn’t considered some kooky fringe idea at the time. Of course it is now because if you bring up the use of military governments in passing the 14th amendment – well, “only racists talk about that”, so it just gets dismissed.
But yes, understand that the 14th amendment was seen like granting “amnesty” to the illegals is today – it would be creating an alternative method of granting citizenship for a specific group of non-citizens in the US today.
(And the fact that more whites supported granting citizenship to the black slaves at the time than supporting granting amnesty to illegals today is support for a theory I have about whites in the past being more “neurologically left-wing” even if they would be considered today to hold “far-right” positions by today’s standards.)
  1. Despite whatever perceptions American whites had about Americans blacks, it doesn't change the facts were that blacks were not comparable to the Chinese at the time. The cultural gaps and their economic history on a racial basis doesn't justify it.
  2. The basis of historical relativism in this case was seeming argued further in his MLK video, now deleted. That is, as argued by others before, whites didn't have to pay taxes for Black schools. This causes obvious problems as the average black had only limited wealth to tax in large part due to limited skills.
Faulk's self prophesied Conclusion-
So, what do we learn from his conclusions? He bizarrely begins with a tangent on the Zimmerman and Wilson trials and the correlated of media knowledge.
Some excerpts.
The jurors certainly knew more facts about each case than the general public did. Moreover, whites are more likely to believe Zimmerman and Wilson were justified, and whites do better on tests of current events knowledge. In addition, males, who do better on current events knowledge tests than females, also were more satisfied with the Zimmerman verdict than women, and women do worse on current events knowledge tests. Also, people with higher education levels approved the verdict as well.
Thus, all three factors that correlate with general political and current events knowledge (being white, being male and having lots of time in school) also correlate with approving the Zimmerman trial verdict. And the people who had the MOST knowledge – the jurors – unanimously found Zimmerman not guilty.
If you go by the literature in news media talking about “institutional racism” and “white privilege”, it’s not immediately obvious that the aggregate of all media is any less obsessed with the plight of the coloreds than they were in 1964. Maybe they were, but I have no way to really tell.
Do you see it? Do you see that lack of any real transition? Maybe some further comment can help.
But lets say Derrick Wilson killed “the gentle giant” in 1961. There was no internet in 1961, what you knew about the events was what a few major news outlets chose to report. As it happens, a jury also found J.W. Milam and Roy Bryant not guilty of murder in their killing of Emmett Till. And what do you know about that event? Do the facts you know of the Emmett Till verdict seem to paint a one-sided story to where it is unbelievable, yes, unbelievable that a jury would find Bryant and Milam not guilty?
Once again we have a comparison that isn't proper. The modern day examples leaves no ambiguity as to who killed who, it was a matter of whether the killing was justified or not.
The Emmett Till situation was vastly different, since the matter of whether or not Till was killed, whether or not Milam and Bryant were guilty, or exactly what happened between Till and Bryant in the store. Her own account only goes as far as to say that she was grabbed by the waist, while press releases by the defense/police was explicitly more violent. Both stories differ from her original account to her lawyers. Even the officer who initially believed that the body belonged to Till changed his mind when the town's reputation began to be tarnished.
Furthermore, even if we are to treat the Till case like the modern day examples, it only shows the hairiness of the case itself. Despite the defense being that Till is not confirmed dead, and that the brothers were innocent of murder, part of their defense regarding Till's actions and the release of Louis Till's rape record by politicians shows a blatant message. That even if the brothers killed Till, it was justified despite nonetheless being illegal.
Anyone, however, can read the various sources that talks about the issue at length. Personally I have Devery Anderson's most recent book.
Because we all know that the courts in the South were incredibly unfair to the blacks? Except there’s no real data to support that at the time,
In regards to death penalties, legal and illegal, for interracial rape, we do. This is supported, along with the data, In regards to changing testimonies in the case of Till, from the police, we do. From the fact that shortly afterward another white on black murder with a white witness (and multiple black ones) claiming otherwise. Said white was not only a friend of the defendants of the Till case, but was defended by the same officer who doubted the corpse's identity.
Point is that an entire survey of the south as a premise of bias is unnecessary (though supportive) of bias. The specific town where the crime took place has plenty of evidence of bias during the trial stemming from community values.
and victim surveys from modern times correspond with the police arrest rates, and police are more likely to kill a white person in any given arrest situation, are more likely to shoot blacks in simulations, and the black percentage of killing cops is higher than their percentage of being killed by cops. And in fact the black incarceration rate relative to whites is HIGHER than it was during segregation.
Irrelevant to the context of Till, a circumstance so legally unique from the above examples it shows Faulk's ignorance. The only connection is the matter of white credibility in modern settings verses in the context of a particular case.
As shown in previous articles, modern “institutional racism” in terms of police and court bias, callbacksand educational opportunities are very easily revealed to be phantasms – or at the very least the issue of whether or not they exist is much more complex than the basic statistics you hear on tumblr and huffpo posts would suggest.
Both articles are shitty, see United Left on the school vouchers argument.
Recent studies have shown that residential racial segregation has increased in the United States. This is an improvement over older studies which simply looked at cities and the percentage of each race in the cities. These newer methods actually look at the likelihood of you having a neighbor of a different race, and find that racial segregation is increasing.
So it's basically comparing two different types of "segregation", the conventional method comparing pre-1960s trends nonetheless decreasing.
We already know that schools are more segregated than they were during the late 1960s. Now this is a profound thing; you’ve been to school. You had first hand experience with how racially segregated they were. THAT was close to what it was like during Jim Crow that we hear so many stories about. So… how segregated did it seem?
Again, misleading headline.
In other places on this site, Sean and I make arguments about how currently, blacks and hispanics are not getting a raw deal in employment, courts or education. But what surprised me was just how much, looking into the past, the old days seem so similar to today in terms of the lot of blacks compared to whites.
They are drawn parallel. The past is not far away, it’s right here. 60 years ago was yesterday.
Only your superficial understanding of the 1960s, or any decade before.
submitted by pog99 to badhistory [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 20:07 Rumored17 Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

1."It's all how you raise them."

And more:
• ⁠Lockwood, R. A. N. D. A. L. L. (2016). Ethology, ecology and epidemiology of canine aggression. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People,, 160-181.
• ⁠Abrantes, R., Site, A., Camp, S., Diving, F. A. Q., Camp, G. P., Pages, M., ... & User, C. C. (2016). Aggressive Behavior—Inheritance and Environment.
• ⁠van den Berg, L. I. N. D. A. (2016). Genetics of dog behavior. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, 5, 69.
• ⁠O'Neill, D. G., & Packer, R. M. (2016). The First Canine Behavior and Genetics Conference: Summary and recommendations for future directions in canine behavioral science. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16, 6-12.
• ⁠Sørensen, M. (2016). Breeding aggression: Review of recent literature concerning the influence of genes on aggressive behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
• ⁠Schilder, M. B., van der Borg, J. A., & Vinke, C. M. (2019). Intraspecific killing in dogs: predation behavior or aggression? A study of aggressors, victims, possible causes and motivations. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
These studies all show that genetics play a large role in dog behavior. Most are related to Pit Bulls or aggression, but some just show that there are noticeable differences between dog breeds based on their breed. Here are some anecdotal sources to support the claims that Pit Bulls are born with a tendency to be aggressive:
In addition, "it's all how you raise them" goes against the very existence of dog breeds. If someone is arguing this, they are saying a Labrador Retriever will have the same instincts as a Border Collie, which will have the same instincts as a Doberman, which will have the same instincts as a Great Pyrenees, which will have the same instincts as a Dachshund, etc. This is observably and demonstrably false. Humans created different dog breeds with different temperaments and physical and behavioral traits through selective breeding. This is why dog breeds exist, this is why breed standards exist, this is why people can reasonably and accurately predict how a dog will act based on breed. Are there exceptions? Of course. However, that is just what they are- exceptions. Different dog breeds have different traits and tendencies dependent on what they were selectively bred for.

2. "Chihuahuas are more aggressive."

This is just a disingenuous attempt to derail the conversation. Even if Chihuahuas are more aggressive, they don't/can't kill people. If Chihuahuas were as large as Pit Bulls, perhaps this would be a conversation worth having- seeing as this is not the case, there is no argument to be had here.
I try to emphasize that the issue with Pits is how many people and pets they kill. Pit Bulls are not just biting people- they are killing, severely maiming, and mauling people. There is a huge difference, and it is important to recognize many Pit fanatics will try to lump in all dog bites with the maulings Pit Bulls are responsible for. They are not the same. This is similar to the "Labs bite more" argument- again, we are not just talking about bites. Keep the discussion focused on severe maulings, maimings, and deaths, because that is what BSL targets.
From 1982-2020 no Chihuahua has ever killed anyone. This source breaks down attacks by breed, child or adult victim, and death or maiming.

3. "There's no such thing as a Pit Bull." and "Pit Bulls can't be identified."

A good way to avoid even getting to this apologist bingo point is by using the phrasing "Pit Bull type dogs" as opposed to Pit Bulls. However, you can also just explain that "Pit Bull" is an umbrella term for four closely related dog breeds- the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are actually so similar they can be dual registered as an AmStaff with the AKC and a APBT with the UKC. Until recently, most dog DNA tests would not even separate AmStaff from APBT due to the extreme similarities. This is also just another deflection technique- everyone knows what someone means by "Pit Bull" just as everyone knows what someone means by "Golden Retriever." This is what "pit bull" means legally.
Now, because "Pit Bull" does refer to 4 dog breeds rather than one, Pit apologists will often cry "well of course 4 dog breeds will kill more people!" but keep in mind that these 4 dog breeds have killed more people than 300+ other dog breeds combined. The Pit Bull umbrella kills more people than every other group or type of dogs and more than every other dog breed combined.
Regarding Pit Bulls being unidentifiable:
Pit Bulls have just as many obvious identifying characteristics as other dog breeds. There is no reason to believe Pit Bulls suffer from misidentification more than other dog breeds. There is reason to believe Pit Bulls are intentionally mislabeled as other breeds when in shelters, however. In addition, when discussing fatal Pit Bull attacks specifically, more often than not there are photos of the Pit Bulls involved so anyone can verify for themselves if they were Pit Bull type dogs. Genetic testing is not required for breed identification- anyone who argues this is being disingenuous. Another point is that we are constantly inundated with Pro-Pit propaganda; there is simply no way we can have Pixar shorts such as Kitbull and a new Dodo video every week about Pit Bulls and still be expected to believe the average person cannot visually identify a Pit Bull.

4. "Pits are no more dangerous than other dogs."

The statistics also support our side here- Pit Bulls have killed more people than all other dog breeds combined. Pit Bulls are not the largest, nor the strongest dogs out there. They do not have the strongest bite force. They are more deadly than other dog breeds because humans selectively bred them to be as deadly as possible. They are deadly due to the nature of their attacks and the behavioral traits they display when attacking such as gameness and a bite style mentioned in some of these studies, along with their physical traits.

5. "It used to be Dobermans, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds that people wanted to ban!"

Pit Bulls have killed more people than those three breeds ever did, even at the height of their popularity, even combined. There is also no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact, quite a lot of evidence showing it's completely false.
It is important to note as well that none of these breeds have an entire lobby supporting them. They do not have communities dedicated to attack victim harassment, misinformation, and lies, unlike the Pit Bull has. Something interesting to consider is the bias online when looking at these breeds and other restricted breeds vs pages about Pit Bulls. Wikipedia in particular is very obviously being manipulated by Pit Bull fanatics.
None of this manipulation is occurring on the pages for Dobermans, Rottweilers, or German Shepherds. These three breeds never reached anywhere close to the level of suffering and carnage Pit Bulls are responsible for. There has never been a concerted effort to ban these breeds, although some are targeted by apartment restrictions due to insurance issues. There is also no lobby supporting the misinformation and misrepresentation of these breeds.

6. "Dogsbite.org is biased and unreliable."

Dogsbite is completely open and transparent about their data collection strategies. They provide identification photographs and have all of their citations publicly listed. Citations and Photographs
Here is a challenge I like to give to people who claim Dogsbite is unreliable, although I have yet to receive a legitimate response:
Have you actually looked into dogsbite.org yourself? You do know that dogsbite tracks every fatal dog attack, regardless if it's a Pit or not? It appears anti-Pit because most fatal dog attacks are done by Pits. They're not only posting Pit attacks- there are just so many more fatal Pit attacks than other breeds it appears they are. Here's a proposal for you: Go to 2020 and late 2019, a time frame for which news reports are still abundantly available all over the internet, and fact-check ANY FOUR DOG-BITE FATALITIES OF YOUR CHOOSING, two where the killer dogs are said to be pit/mixes, and two cases where the killer dogs are not said to be pit/mixes:
  1. Did DogsBite accurately name the person killed?
  2. Did DogsBite accurately summarize the circumstances in which the person was killed?
  3. Did DogsBite accurately identify the breed(s) of the killer dog(s)?
  4. Did DogsBite provide a photo or photos of the killer dog(s) so you can judge for yourself what type of dog(s) you think did the killing?
DogsBite and Wikipedia both provide links to news stories about these fatal attacks. If you don't want to use the news links provided by DogsBite, then use the ones on Wikipedia that cover the same stories. DogsBite also provides links to autopsy reports, police reports and 911 calls, so you can compare these primary sources with the summaries on the DogsBite page and assess whether those summaries are accurate.

7. "Human aggressive Pit Bulls were culled!"

This is a myth. While human aggression was not something that was typically selectively bred for it is a myth that most human aggressive Pits were culled. That was not the case, and it still is not the case today. One look at shelter descriptions of Pits with bite histories and severe aggression issues shows these dogs are not being euthanized, and there are several instances of Pit Bulls who have killed people being bred.
There's no evidence whatsoever that dog fighters routinely destroyed human-aggressive dogs and refused to breed them. u/NorthTwoZero wrote at length about why it's a myth here, and this blogger put together a documented list of famously human-aggressive fighting dogs who not only weren't "culled" but were bred so often that they produced over 1,200 known, registered offspring:
"The man-biters were culled and the pit bulls were not bred for human aggression myths were created from thin air, complete fabrications. There is not a sliver of truth in the myth that dogmen culled man-biters. Not only weren't human aggressive pit fighters NOT culled, but a talented man-biter was heavily bred, his stud services were in high demand and the stud fees commanded a premium. The progeny of man-biters are still sought out long after he or she has passed away. This Italian game-dog website lists their choice for the Best Ever fighting dogs, three of the five are known man-biters and the other two trace their origins to the others on their "Best" list. Some famous man-biters have their own facebook fan pages. If you happen to be a 10x winner with 3 kills and scratching on the carcass, people tend to overlook a little thing like the danger she poses to people and she is also likely to be nominated for the cover of this month's International Sporting Dog Journal. Some famous man-biters not only have a facebook fan page, they have their own promotional merchandise too."

8. "Pit Bulls were nanny dogs!" or "Pit Bulls were America's dog!"

First, I usually ask questions that demonstrate out how absurd that claim is. What is a nanny dog? What duties does a nanny dog perform? Why would a dog type be called a "Pit Bull" if it nannied? Where does the name "Pit Bull" come from? Why is it necessary for Pits to have such large, gaping mouths and extremely muscular bodies if they were nannies? Then here is some actual info:
The first appearance of the term "Nanny Dog" dates from a 1971 NYT interview with the then president of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, Lillian Rant, who called Staffordshire Bull Terriers "nursemaid dogs" for no apparent reason (other than to attempt to re-brand fighting dogs as family pets).
BAD RAP shared a link. It's Dog Bite Prevention Week. Did you know that there was never such thing as a 'Nanny's Dog'? This term was a recent invention created to describe the myriad of vintage photos of children enjoying their family pit bulls (see link for details about vintage photos). While the intention behind the term was innocent, using it may mislead parents into being careless with their children around their family dog - A recipe for dog bites!
Regarding Pits being "America's dog": Bronwen Dickey (author of incredibly biased and unscientific book "Pit Bull: The Battle over an American Icon") and other pit bull advocates argue that pit bulls were historically beloved in the U.S. until the dogs became associated with urban people of color in the 1970s, so Pit Bull stigma is really about being racist toward black and brown people.
But pit bulls were not historically beloved in the U.S. nor were they popularly regarded as a positive symbol of plucky can-do spirit. Joseph Colby, in his lifetime one of the world's leading authorities on the Pit Bull Terrier, wrote in 1936 that "The general public is under the impression that this breed is carnivorous, vicious, and, fed on a diet of raw meat, will devour a human being" and "When the pit bull terrier was introduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation."
Sometimes Pit people will randomly mention how Sergeant Stubby, a decorated war hero dog, was a Pit Bull. He was not. Primary (contemporary) sources most often describe Stubby as a Boston Terrier or Boston Terrier mix (this breed was sometimes called the Boston Bulldog). He is sometimes said to be a Bull Terrier (the egghead dogs) mix but he obviously resembles a Boston Terrier significantly more than a Bull Terrier. Stubby is never said to be a Pit Bull in primary sources.

9. "Pit Bulls scored 2nd highest on temperament tests and better than most family dog breeds!"

This is always referring to the ATTS, or the American Temperament Testing Society. It is refuted thoroughly in the BanPitBulls FAQ, but this is what I usually say as well:
The test was developed to test working dogs, specifically dogs meant for schutzhund work. It has never been, nor ever purported to be about testing companion animals or a breed's suitability as family pets. Scoring actually favors dogs that bite, in some cases. Breed specific temperament, aggression, and each dog's training is taken into account when scoring. This means that if a relatively untrained Lab bites a "threatening stranger" it will score far lower than a German Shepherd that bites a "threatening stranger." According to the ATTS itself, "95% of dogs who fail do so because they lack confidence" NOT because they bite. Dogs that exhibit avoidance behaviors will fail. Dogs that bite do not automatically fail. The ATTS also states that comparing scores with other dogs means nothing- the pass/fail rates cannot be compared. Different dog breeds that behave the same exact way on the test will get hugely different scores due to the fact they take inherent breed tendencies into consideration. The test is not designed to test for breed aggression, according to the ATTS website. It is more of a test of bravery for individual dogs. Timid dogs will always fail. Dogs that bite will not always fail. If anything, you could argue that the reason Pits have a high passing rate is because they bite or show aggression, although that is speculation and not proven. Either way though- the test does not test breed aggression, passing rates cannot be compared, and the test absolutely does not test for suitability as a family pet. More info here: What the ATTS is really showing.
It is also worth mentioning that the only dogs that participate in the ATTS testing are dogs brought in by their owners- it is not a random sample or scientific study of any kind. Considering the evidence showing the existence of an actual Pit Bull lobby, it would not be a reach to say these results have been intentionally manipulated (if they did even matter, which they don't).
Also, a controlled temperament test found that 13 percent, or one out of seven, pit bulls tried to bite or attack during a one hour test simulating a neighborhood walk. One out of seven pit bulls tried to bite in the span of just one hour compared to only one out of 70 golden retrievers. Note that this study was funded and authored by anti-breed ban activists: They found "no significant difference" between breeds when the definition of aggression was watered down to include even whining or crying. But pay close attention to Table 5 on page 138: out of all the breeds tested, pit bulls were markedly the worst when it came to the percentage of dogs that reached a more serious level of aggression.

10. "It's racism for dogs!"

Humans are not dogs, and dog breeds are not analogous to human races.
In addition, one cannot compare a race of people to a breed of dogs for a multitude of reasons. Dog breeds were selectively, intentionally bred for specific characteristics and traits by human beings. Humans created dog breeds based on what physical and behavioral traits we wanted them to have. (Spaniels for flushing, retrievers for fetching prey/birds without damage, livestock guardian dogs such as Great Pyrenees for protecting livestock, Huskies for endurance and energy, Pointers for pointing, etc. Different dog breeds have different behavioral tendencies because humans selectively bred them to have those tendencies). Dogs also do not suffer from cultural differences, institutionalized racism, or socioeconomic disparities. Humans are also not as heavily influenced by our instincts as dogs are. Dogs behave based on their instincts and training. Humans behave mainly on their "training." Humans also have far more complex thought processes and the ability to make complex decisions. Dogs do not. You could go on and on but that is the basic overview there- dogs were selectively bred and rely mainly on their instincts. Humans were not selectively bred and are capable of making complex and rational decisions.
Post continued in the comments due to the character limit.
submitted by Rumored17 to BanPitBulls [link] [comments]


2020.09.15 23:29 Rumored17 Refutations for Every Main Pro-Pit Argument

1."It's all how you raise them."

And more:
• ⁠Lockwood, R. A. N. D. A. L. L. (2016). Ethology, ecology and epidemiology of canine aggression. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour & Interactions with People,, 160-181.
• ⁠Abrantes, R., Site, A., Camp, S., Diving, F. A. Q., Camp, G. P., Pages, M., ... & User, C. C. (2016). Aggressive Behavior—Inheritance and Environment.
• ⁠van den Berg, L. I. N. D. A. (2016). Genetics of dog behavior. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People, 5, 69.
• ⁠O'Neill, D. G., & Packer, R. M. (2016). The First Canine Behavior and Genetics Conference: Summary and recommendations for future directions in canine behavioral science. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16, 6-12.
• ⁠Sørensen, M. (2016). Breeding aggression: Review of recent literature concerning the influence of genes on aggressive behaviour (Doctoral dissertation).
• ⁠Schilder, M. B., van der Borg, J. A., & Vinke, C. M. (2019). Intraspecific killing in dogs: predation behavior or aggression? A study of aggressors, victims, possible causes and motivations. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.
These studies all show that genetics play a large role in dog behavior. Most are related to Pit Bulls or aggression, but some just show that there are noticeable differences between dog breeds based on their breed. Here are some anecdotal sources to support the claims that Pit Bulls are born with a tendency to be aggressive:
In addition, "it's all how you raise them" goes against the very existence of dog breeds. If someone is arguing this, they are saying a Labrador Retriever will have the same instincts as a Border Collie, which will have the same instincts as a Doberman, which will have the same instincts as a Great Pyrenees, which will have the same instincts as a Dachshund, etc. This is observably and demonstrably false. Humans created different dog breeds with different temperaments and physical and behavioral traits through selective breeding. This is why dog breeds exist, this is why breed standards exist, this is why people can reasonably and accurately predict how a dog will act based on breed. Are there exceptions? Of course. However, that is just what they are- exceptions. Different dog breeds have different traits and tendencies dependent on what they were selectively bred for.

2. "Chihuahuas are more aggressive."

This is just a disingenuous attempt to derail the conversation. Even if Chihuahuas are more aggressive, they don't/can't kill people. If Chihuahuas were as large as Pit Bulls, perhaps this would be a conversation worth having- seeing as this is not the case, there is no argument to be had here.
I try to emphasize that the issue with Pits is how many people and pets they kill. Pit Bulls are not just biting people- they are killing, severely maiming, and mauling people. There is a huge difference, and it is important to recognize many Pit fanatics will try to lump in all dog bites with the maulings Pit Bulls are responsible for. They are not the same. This is similar to the "Labs bite more" argument- again, we are not just talking about bites. Keep the discussion focused on severe maulings, maimings, and deaths, because that is what BSL targets.
From 1982-2020 no Chihuahua has ever killed anyone. This source breaks down attacks by breed, child or adult victim, and death or maiming.

3. "There's no such thing as a Pit Bull." and "Pit Bulls can't be identified."

A good way to avoid even getting to this apologist bingo point is by using the phrasing "Pit Bull type dogs" as opposed to Pit Bulls. However, you can also just explain that "Pit Bull" is an umbrella term for four closely related dog breeds- the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Bully. The American Pit Bull Terrier and the American Staffordshire Terrier are actually so similar they can be dual registered as an AmStaff with the AKC and a APBT with the UKC. Until recently, most dog DNA tests would not even separate AmStaff from APBT due to the extreme similarities. This is also just another deflection technique- everyone knows what someone means by "Pit Bull" just as everyone knows what someone means by "Golden Retriever." This is what "pit bull" means legally.
Now, because "Pit Bull" does refer to 4 dog breeds rather than one, Pit apologists will often cry "well of course 4 dog breeds will kill more people!" but keep in mind that these 4 dog breeds have killed more people than 300+ other dog breeds combined. The Pit Bull umbrella kills more people than every other group or type of dogs and more than every other dog breed combined.
Regarding Pit Bulls being unidentifiable:
Pit Bulls have just as many obvious identifying characteristics as other dog breeds. There is no reason to believe Pit Bulls suffer from misidentification more than other dog breeds. There is reason to believe Pit Bulls are intentionally mislabeled as other breeds when in shelters, however. In addition, when discussing fatal Pit Bull attacks specifically, more often than not there are photos of the Pit Bulls involved so anyone can verify for themselves if they were Pit Bull type dogs. Genetic testing is not required for breed identification- anyone who argues this is being disingenuous. Another point is that we are constantly inundated with Pro-Pit propaganda; there is simply no way we can have Pixar shorts such as Kitbull and a new Dodo video every week about Pit Bulls and still be expected to believe the average person cannot visually identify a Pit Bull.

4. Pits are no more dangerous than other dogs.

The statistics also support our side here- Pit Bulls have killed more people than all other dog breeds combined. Pit Bulls are not the largest, nor the strongest dogs out there. They do not have the strongest bite force. They are more deadly than other dog breeds because humans selectively bred them to be as deadly as possible. They are deadly due to the nature of their attacks and the behavioral traits they display when attacking such as gameness and a bite style mentioned in some of these studies, along with their physical traits.

5. "It used to be Dobermans, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds that people wanted to ban!"

Pit Bulls have killed more people than those three breeds ever did, even at the height of their popularity, even combined. There is also no evidence supporting this claim, and in fact, quite a lot of evidence showing it's completely false.
It is important to note as well that none of these breeds have an entire lobby supporting them. They do not have communities dedicated to attack victim harassment, misinformation, and lies, unlike the Pit Bull has. Something interesting to consider is the bias online when looking at these breeds and other restricted breeds vs pages about Pit Bulls. Wikipedia in particular is very obviously being manipulated by Pit Bull fanatics.
None of this manipulation is occurring on the pages for Dobermans, Rottweilers, or German Shepherds. These three breeds never reached anywhere close to the level of suffering and carnage Pit Bulls are responsible for. There has never been a concerted effort to ban these breeds, although some are targeted by apartment restrictions due to insurance issues. There is also no lobby supporting the misinformation and misrepresentation of these breeds.

6. "Dogsbite.org is biased and unreliable."

Dogsbite is completely open and transparent about their data collection strategies. They provide identification photographs and have all of their citations publicly listed. Citations and Photographs
Here is a challenge I like to give to people who claim Dogsbite is unreliable, although I have yet to receive a legitimate response:
Have you actually looked into dogsbite.org yourself? You do know that dogsbite tracks every fatal dog attack, regardless if it's a Pit or not? It appears anti-Pit because most fatal dog attacks are done by Pits. They're not only posting Pit attacks- there are just so many more fatal Pit attacks than other breeds it appears they are.
Here's a proposal for you:
Go to 2020 and late 2019, a time frame for which news reports are still abundantly available all over the internet, and fact-check ANY FOUR DOG-BITE FATALITIES OF YOUR CHOOSING, two where the killer dogs are said to be pit/mixes, and two cases where the killer dogs are not said to be pit/mixes:
  1. Did DogsBite accurately name the person killed?
  2. Did DogsBite accurately summarize the circumstances in which the person was killed?
  3. Did DogsBite accurately identify the breed(s) of the killer dog(s)?
  4. Did DogsBite provide a photo or photos of the killer dog(s) so you can judge for yourself what type of dog(s) you think did the killing?
DogsBite and Wikipedia both provide links to news stories about these fatal attacks. If you don't want to use the news links provided by DogsBite, then use the ones on Wikipedia that cover the same stories. DogsBite also provides links to autopsy reports, police reports and 911 calls, so you can compare these primary sources with the summaries on the DogsBite page and assess whether those summaries are accurate.

7. "Human aggressive Pit Bulls were culled!"

This is a myth. While human aggression was not something that was typically selectively bred for it is a myth that most human aggressive Pits were culled. That was not the case, and it still is not the case today. One look at shelter descriptions of Pits with bite histories and severe aggression issues shows these dogs are not being euthanized, and there are several instances of Pit Bulls who have killed people being bred.
There's no evidence whatsoever that dog fighters routinely destroyed human-aggressive dogs and refused to breed them. u/NorthTwoZero wrote at length about why it's a myth here, and this blogger put together a documented list of famously human-aggressive fighting dogs who not only weren't "culled" but were bred so often that they produced over 1,200 known, registered offspring:
"The man-biters were culled and the pit bulls were not bred for human aggression myths were created from thin air, complete fabrications. There is not a sliver of truth in the myth that dogmen culled man-biters. Not only weren't human aggressive pit fighters NOT culled, but a talented man-biter was heavily bred, his stud services were in high demand and the stud fees commanded a premium. The progeny of man-biters are still sought out long after he or she has passed away. This Italian game-dog website lists their choice for the Best Ever fighting dogs, three of the five are known man-biters and the other two trace their origins to the others on their "Best" list. Some famous man-biters have their own facebook fan pages. If you happen to be a 10x winner with 3 kills and scratching on the carcass, people tend to overlook a little thing like the danger she poses to people and she is also likely to be nominated for the cover of this month's International Sporting Dog Journal. Some famous man-biters not only have a facebook fan page, they have their own promotional merchandise too."

8. "Pit Bulls were nanny dogs!" or "Pit Bulls were America's dog!"

First, I usually ask questions that demonstrate out how absurd that claim is. What is a nanny dog? What duties does a nanny dog perform? Why would a dog type be called a "Pit Bull" if it nannied? Where does the name "Pit Bull" come from? Why is it necessary for Pits to have such large, gaping mouths and extremely muscular bodies if they were nannies? Then here is some actual info:
The first appearance of the term "Nanny Dog" dates from a 1971 NYT interview with the then president of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club of America, Lillian Rant, who called Staffordshire Bull Terriers "nursemaid dogs" for no apparent reason (other than to attempt to re-brand fighting dogs as family pets).
BAD RAP shared a link.
It's Dog Bite Prevention Week. Did you know that there was never such thing as a 'Nanny's Dog'? This term was a recent invention created to describe the myriad of vintage photos of children enjoying their family pit bulls (see link for details about vintage photos). While the intention behind the term was innocent, using it may mislead parents into being careless with their children around their family dog - A recipe for dog bites!
Regarding Pits being "America's dog": Bronwen Dickey (author of incredibly biased and unscientific book "Pit Bull: The Battle over an American Icon") and other pit bull advocates argue that pit bulls were historically beloved in the U.S. until the dogs became associated with urban people of color in the 1970s, so Pit Bull stigma is really about being racist toward black and brown people.
But pit bulls were not historically beloved in the U.S. nor were they popularly regarded as a positive symbol of plucky can-do spirit. Joseph Colby, in his lifetime one of the world's leading authorities on the Pit Bull Terrier, wrote in 1936 that "The general public is under the impression that this breed is carnivorous, vicious, and, fed on a diet of raw meat, will devour a human being" and "When the pit bull terrier was introduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation."
Sometimes Pit people will randomly mention how Sergeant Stubby, a decorated war hero dog, was a Pit Bull. He was not. Primary (contemporary) sources most often describe Stubby as a Boston Terrier or Boston Terrier mix (this breed was sometimes called the Boston Bulldog). He is sometimes said to be a Bull Terrier (the egghead dogs) mix but he obviously resembles a Boston Terrier significantly more than a Bull Terrier. Stubby is never said to be a Pit Bull in primary sources.

9. "Pit Bulls scored 2nd highest on temperament tests and better than most family dog breeds!"

This is always referring to the ATTS, or the American Temperament Testing Society. It is refuted thoroughly in the BanPitBulls FAQ, but this is what I usually say as well:
The test was developed to test working dogs, specifically dogs meant for schutzhund work. It has never been, nor ever purported to be about testing companion animals or a breed's suitability as family pets. Scoring actually favors dogs that bite, in some cases. Breed specific temperament, aggression, and each dog's training is taken into account when scoring. This means that if a relatively untrained Lab bites a "threatening stranger" it will score far lower than a German Shepherd that bites a "threatening stranger."
According to the ATTS itself, "95% of dogs who fail do so because they lack confidence" NOT because they bite. Dogs that exhibit avoidance behaviors will fail. Dogs that bite do not automatically fail.
The ATTS also states that comparing scores with other dogs means nothing- the pass/fail rates cannot be compared. Different dog breeds that behave the same exact way on the test will get hugely different scores due to the fact they take inherent breed tendencies into consideration.
The test is not designed to test for breed aggression, according to the ATTS website. It is more of a test of bravery for individual dogs. Timid dogs will always fail. Dogs that bite will not always fail.
If anything, you could argue that the reason Pits have a high passing rate is because they bite or show aggression, although that is speculation and not proven. Either way though- the test does not test breed aggression, passing rates cannot be compared, and the test absolutely does not test for suitability as a family pet.
More info here: What the ATTS is really showing.
It is also worth mentioning that the only dogs that participate in the ATTS testing are dogs brought in by their owners- it is not a random sample or scientific study of any kind. Considering the evidence showing the existence of an actual Pit Bull lobby, it would not be a reach to say these results have been intentionally manipulated (if they did even matter, which they don't).
Also, a controlled temperament test found that 13 percent, or one out of seven, pit bulls tried to bite or attack during a one hour test simulating a neighborhood walk. One out of seven pit bulls tried to bite in the span of just one hour compared to only one out of 70 golden retrievers. Note that this study was funded and authored by anti-breed ban activists: They found "no significant difference" between breeds when the definition of aggression was watered down to include even whining or crying. But pay close attention to Table 5 on page 138: out of all the breeds tested, pit bulls were markedly the worst when it came to the percentage of dogs that reached a more serious level of aggression.

10. "It's racism for dogs!"

Humans are not dogs, and dog breeds are not analogous to human races.
In addition, one cannot compare a race of people to a breed of dogs for a multitude of reasons. Dog breeds were selectively, intentionally bred for specific characteristics and traits by human beings. Humans created dog breeds based on what physical and behavioral traits we wanted them to have. (Spaniels for flushing, retrievers for fetching prey/birds without damage, livestock guardian dogs such as Great Pyrenees for protecting livestock, Huskies for endurance and energy, Pointers for pointing, etc. Different dog breeds have different behavioral tendencies because humans selectively bred them to have those tendencies). Dogs also do not suffer from cultural differences, institutionalized racism, or socioeconomic disparities. Humans are also not as heavily influenced by our instincts as dogs are. Dogs behave based on their instincts and training. Humans behave mainly on their "training." Humans also have far more complex thought processes and the ability to make complex decisions. Dogs do not. You could go on and on but that is the basic overview there- dogs were selectively bred and rely mainly on their instincts. Humans were not selectively bred and are capable of making complex and rational decisions.
Post continued in the comments due to the character limit.
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2020.09.14 14:27 rusticgorilla Lost in the Sauce: GOP source has been a Russian agent for a decade

Welcome to Lost in the Sauce, keeping you caught up on political and legal news that often gets buried in distractions and theater… or a global health crisis.
Housekeeping:

GOP source is Russian agent

The Treasury Department announced new sanctions against Andriy Derkach, a Ukrainian lawmaker, accusing him of being an "active Russian agent" who is part of Moscow's interference in the 2020 campaign. Derkach has been actively promoting discredited anti-Biden materials for many months, including meeting with Trump’s lawyer Rudy Giuliani to hand over disinformation (picture).
Between May and July 2020, Derkach released edited audio tapes and other unsupported information with the intent to discredit U.S. officials, and he levied unsubstantiated allegations against U.S. and international political figures
These tapes were laundered through Giuliani to OANN, the Senate Homeland Security Committee (via Chairman Sen. Ron Johnson), Don Jr., and the president himself.
Senate Finance Committee Ranking Member Ron Wyden (D-OR) called out Sen. Johnson and Sen. Chuck Grassley (Chair of Senate Finance Cmte.) for collaborating with Derkach:
Derkach has been central in advancing the Russian disinformation that underpins Senate Republicans’ effort to smear Vice President Biden. For example, in April, the Republican chairmen of the Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs and Finance Committees requested information about purported calls between Vice President Biden and Ukrainian officials. Then in May edited excerpts of those same calls involving Biden were leaked by Derkach and Andrii Telizhenko, the Senate Republicans’ star witness.
...Senate investigations should not parrot conspiracy theories pushed by Russian agents under U.S. sanctions, and Senate Republicans should immediately abandon this blatantly political effort.

DHS Whistleblower

Last week, the House Intelligence Committee released a whistleblower complaint made by former acting Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Intelligence and Analysis Brian Murphy. Chairman Adam Schiff released a statement saying the complaint “outlines grave and disturbing allegations that senior White House and Department of Homeland Security officials improperly sought to politicize, manipulate, and censor intelligence in order to benefit President Trump politically.”

On Russia

Page 10: Mr. Murphy made several protected disclosures between March 2018 and August 2020 regarding a repeated pattern of abuse of authority, attempted censorship of intelligence analysis and improper administration of an intelligence program related to Russian efforts to influence and undermine United States interests. The relevant officials at issue were Secretary Nielsen and Messrs. Wolf, Cuccinelli, Taylor, and Acting Deputy Director for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Kash Patel (“Mr. Patel”).
In May 2020, Acting Homeland Security Secretary Chad Wolf told Murphy to “cease providing intelligence assessments on the threat of Russian interference in the United States, and instead start reporting on interference activities by China and Iran.” Wolf told Murphy those instructions came directly from White House national security adviser Robert O’Brien, according to Murphy, who said he refused to comply because “doing so would put the country in substantial and specific danger.”
In July 2020, DHS chief of staff John Gountanis intervened to stop publication of an intelligence bulletin warning about a Russian disinformation plot to “denigrate” the mental health of Joe Biden. On July 8, Murphy said, he met with Wolf, who told him that the intelligence notification should be “held” because it “made the President look bad.” After Murphy protested, Wolf excluded him from meetings about the notification, a draft of which was ultimately produced that Murphy felt minimized the actions of Russia.
The complaint details dozens of instances in which Murphy told his superiors about the abuses of power and political interference. The complaints either went nowhere or resulted in perceived retaliatory actions against Murphy. Many of these complaints were given to Kash Patel, former staffer to Rep. Devin Nunes (R-CA), who played a key role in a Republican effort to discredit Mueller’s and the FBI’s Russia probes.
  • Related: NSC’s top legislative affairs official, Virginia Boney, was removed and sent to the Commerce Department earlier this year because she kept pressing the White House to prioritize election security efforts — and specifically the threat posed by Russia. To date, there have been no traditional NSC Principals Committee meetings — with senior Cabinet officials and the president — on the subject of Russian interference this year.

On white supremacy

Page 14: During multiple meetings between the end of May 2020 and July 31, 2020, Mr. Murphy made protected disclosures to Messrs. Wolf and Cuccinelli regarding abuse of authority and improper administration of an intelligence program with respect to intelligence information on ANTIFA and “anarchist” groups operating throughout the United States.
Murphy alleges that Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Deputy Secretary Ken Cuccinelli ordered him to modify intelligence assessments to make the threat of white supremacy “appear less severe” and include information on violent “left-wing” groups and Antifa. The reason given was “to ensure they matched up with the public comments by President Trump on the subject of ANTIFA and ‘anarchist’ groups.”
After Murphy refused to change a draft report warning of the threat posed by White supremacists, Wolf and Cuccinelli reportedly stopped the report from being finished.

On immigration and asylum

In Dec. 2019, Cuccinelli expressed frustration with intelligence reports detailing conditions in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and accused "deep-state intelligence analysts" of compiling the information to undermine Trump's objectives regarding asylum.
Page 9: The intelligence reports were designed to help asylum officers render better determinations regarding their legal standards… Mr. Murphy defended the work in the reports, but Mr. Cuccinelli stated he wanted changes to the information outlining high levels of corruption, violence, and poor economic conditions in the three respective countries...
Mr. Cuccinelli ordered Messrs. Murphy and [former I&A Under Secretary David] Glawe to identify the names of the “deep state” individuals who compiled the intelligence reports and to either fire or reassign them immediately.
Murphy also alleges that DHS gave false information to Congress last year about the numbers of suspected terrorists crossing the southern border. At the time, administration officials were repeating a 4,000 figure in an effort to justify the government shutdown over Trump's border wall. The true number was actually six. A DHS spokeswoman pressured NBC to take down a story exposing the lie last year.

Response

Chairman Schiff has subpoenaed Murphy to testify before the Intelligence Cmte. on September 21. The Cmte. also seeks to interview high-level DHS officials including Matthew Hanna, chief of staff in Murphy's former post at DHS' Office of Intelligence and Analysis; the office's top official, Horace Jen; DHS chief of staff John Gountanis; and his deputy, Tyler Houlton.
The Senate Intelligence Cmte. issued a bipartisan request for all of the intelligence analyses that Murphy referenced in his complaint, as well as any notes and materials that fed into them. The House Homeland Security Cmte. issued a subpoena for testimony from Wolf at a hearing on Sept. 17, but DHS says that Wolf will not comply and offers Cuccinelli to testify instead. Also scheduled to be at the hearing: FBI Director Christopher Wray and Christopher Miller of the National Counterterrorism Center.

Russia still interfering

Facebook recently took down accounts and pages associated with a Russian influence operation posing as an independent news outlet. The operation published content described as “an attempt to build a left-wing audience and steer it away from Biden’s campaign, in the same way that the original IRA [Internet Research Agency] tried to depress progressive and minority support for Hillary Clinton in 2016.”
  • The same Russian operation tried and failed to infiltrate left-wing media outlets such as Jacobin, Truthout, and In These Times.
Bob Woodward reported that“the NSA and CIA have classified evidence the Russians had placed malware in the election registration systems of at least two Florida counties, St. Lucie and Washington. While there was no evidence the malware had been activated, Woodward writes, it was sophisticated and could erase voters in specific districts.”
  • Woodward’s book also notes that former director of national intelligence Dan Coats has "deep suspicions" that Russian President Vladimir Putin "had something" on President Trump, seeing "no other explanation" for the president's behavior.
Microsoft alerted SKDKnickerbocker, one of Biden’s main election campaign advisory firms, that suspected Russian state-backed hackers had gone after the company with a failed phishing attack.

DOJ, politicization, and resignations

A top aide to Connecticut U.S. Attorney John Durham, federal prosecutor Nora Dennehy, resigned from the Justice Department and Durham’s investigation into the origins of the Russia probe. Dannehy reportedly resigned “at least partly out of concern” that Trump and AG Barr were exerting improper political pressure on the team to release results before the November election.
Several officials said expectations had been growing in the White House and Congress that Mr. Barr would make public, ahead of the election, some kind of interim report or list of findings from Mr. Durham before he completed the investigation. Mr. Barr had wanted Mr. Durham’s team to move quickly, according to a person familiar with the matter.
Trump has publicly expressed impatience with the Durham investigation, saying there should be more prosecutions and disclosures of information that would damage his political rivals. “Bill Barr has the chance to be the greatest of all time, but if he wants to be politically correct, he’ll be just another guy, because he knows all the answers, he knows what they have, and it goes right to Obama and it goes right to Biden,” Trump said (clip).
Last month, Barr predicted “significant developments in the probe before the election” (clip) and he indicated the DOJ would not respect an informal policy against taking investigative steps 60 days before Election Day. It was for this exact reason that the Trump administration claimed it fired former FBI Director James Comey.
On Tuesday’s Fox News, White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows appeared to claim that he has seen documents—relevant to U.S. Attorney John Durham’s probe of the origins of the Russia investigation—which implicate several Trump and Obama administration officials in potentially illegal conduct.
  • Further reading: “Dannehy Resignation Confirms Barr’s Intent to Use Durham Probe for Political Ends,” Just Security.
Two other DOJ officials resigned last week:
Prosecutor John Choi resigned from Trump's law enforcement commission after expressing "serious" concerns that the intention of the commission was not to bridge the gap between communities of color and law enforcement.
Choi, a Democrat, said in his resignation letter that "it is now patently obvious ... that this process had no intention of engaging in a thoughtful and open analysis, but was intent on providing cover for a predetermined agenda that ignores the lessons of the past, furthering failed tough-on-crime policies that led to our current mass incarceration crisis and fueling divisions between our communities and our police officers."
Deputy Assistant AG David Morrell resigned on Friday, withdrawing from cases defending the government’s position on issues including the Census and the Portland protests.

The courts

A three-judge panel blocked the Trump administration from excluding undocumented immigrants from being counted in the census for apportionment. Trump’s order violates a statue saying apportionment must be based on everyone who is a resident of the United States.
District Judge Lucy Koh ordered the Trump admin. to produce internal documents connected to its sudden decision to end the 2020 Census count a month earlier. Two weeks ago, Koh temporarily blocked the bureau from winding down the count until a hearing set for Sept. 17.
Court-appointed adviser and retired judge John Gleeson slammed the Justice Department’s decision to drop the case against Michael Flynn, calling it a "corrupt and politically motivated favor.” A hearing on the matter is scheduled for Sept. 29.
"In the United States, Presidents do not orchestrate pressure campaigns to get the Justice Department to drop charges against defendants who have pleaded guilty -- twice, before two different judges -- and whose guilt is obvious," Gleeson wrote.
"Yet that is exactly what has unfolded here," he added.
A judge denied a bid to dismiss a lawsuit alleging that Trump's inaugural committee and the Trump Organization misused nonprofit funds to enrich the president's family business. The suit, brought by Washington, D.C., Attorney General Karl Racine in January, alleges that the president's inaugural committee was aware that it was being overcharged for services at Trump's Washington hotel in 2017 and still spent over $1 million at the hotel.
The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control announced two settlements totaling $583,100 with Deutsche Bank to resolve investigations into violations of Ukraine-related sanctions. The resolution came as the bank hired “an old friend” of AG Barr to “help the bank navigate the political waters in Washington.”

Trump profiting

Federal spending records show that taxpayers have paid Trump’s businesses more than $900,000 since he took office. At least $570,000 came as a result of the president’s travel.
In addition to the rentals at Mar-a-Lago, the documents show that the Trump Organization charged daily “resort fees” to Secret Service agents guarding Vice President Pence in Las Vegas and in another instance asked agents to pay a $1,300 “furniture removal charge” during a presidential visit to a Trump resort in Scotland.
Additionally, the Trump Organization has received at least $3.8 million in fees from GOP groups for headlining a political event at one of his properties.
Last month, the Trump Organization received approval for a new trademark in Argentina, the third one in the country. Last November, Trump may have altered U.S. foreign policy to assist his company in obtaining approval for the two previous trademarks. “Shortly after the trademark opposition period ended in April 2018, the Trump administration lifted tariffs on steel and aluminum in Argentina. Once the trademarks were officially granted to his company in November of last year, Trump announced that he would reinstate the tariffs.”
Somehow, Ivanka Trump’s fashion business is still making money despite being shutdown. According to her latest financial disclosures, “All operations of the business ceased on July 31, 2018.” Also according to her latest financial disclosures, she made at least six figures from the trust holding that business in 2019.
We - American taxpayers - footed the bill for “anti-scale fencing” along the perimeter of the White House this summer. The wall, ostensibly to protect Trump from protesters, cost over $1 million. Trump has a history of charging taxpayers for barriers around his properties, including $17,000 for fencing around Mar-a-Lago and $12,000 for “privacy fencing” around Trump International golf resort.

Immigration news

About 8,800 unaccompanied children have been quickly expelled from the United States along the Mexico border under a pandemic-related measure that effectively ended asylum. In total, the Trump administration has expelled more than 159,000 people since March.
ICE officers on the West Coast wanted to suppress Black Lives Matter protests in DC. But they aren't allowed to travel on charter flights without detainees on board. So they brought some detainees with them. In the process, they fueled a massive, deadly COVID outbreak at the Virginia facility that infected over 300 detainees, killing one.
The Pentagon is restarting many domestic projects that were plundered by Trump for money to pay for his border wall. The decision to revive these domestic projects has provided cover for Republican senators who were criticized when their home states lost military construction projects to the president’s wall.

Miscellaneous

Corruption: Secretary of State Mike Pompeo is bringing back his extravagant, taxpayer-funded "Madison Dinners."
Corruption: Medicaid chief Seema Verma has charged taxpayers $6 million in less than two years for expensive consultants, organizers, and events. The Republican consultants were paid by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to work on Verma’s personal image, obtain profiles and coverage from friendly reporters, escort her during travel, write opinion articles, and even draft her Twitter posts.
Corruption: The Trump administration secretly withheld millions of dollars from a program for 9/11 first responders.
Corruption: “Ukraine gas company to add Rick Perry pick to board” and “Rick Perry’s Ukrainian Dream
Protests: Trump endorsed the extrajudicial killing of the suspect in a deadly Portland, Oregon, shooting. . “This guy was a violent criminal, and the US Marshals killed him,” Trump told Fox News host Jeanine Pirro. “And I will tell you something, that’s the way it has to be. There has to be retribution” (clip).
Protests: A witness claims that the Portland suspect, Michael Forest Reinoehl, was not armed and was shot by officers without any warning.
Rightwing: “QAnon fans spread fake claims about real fires in Oregon” and “'Do not take action yourselves': Multnomah Co. Sheriff's Office warns of illegal 'checkpoints' ”
Rightwing: Mark Zuckerberg says it's "just wrong" to consider Facebook a right-wing echo chamber driven by conservative voices. But data from his own company shows that’s exactly what Facebook is.
Environment: David Legates, a University of Delaware professor of climatology who has spent much of his career questioning basic tenets of climate science, has been hired for a top position at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Environment: How Big Oil Misled The Public Into Believing Plastic Would Be Recycled. Your plastic will not be recycled.
Environment: Trump’s Fire Sale of Public Lands for Oil and Gas Drillers: The Bureau of Land Management is rushing to auction off sites ahead of a potential Biden presidency.
World: The Iranian government is considering assassinating the US ambassador to South Africa in response to the killing earlier this year of Qassem Soleimani, according to highly classified intel reports. The plot against the ambassador, Lana Marks, is one of several options US officials believe Iran is considering for retaliation over Soleimani’s death.
  • Woodward reported that Sen. Lindsey Graham urged Trump not to assassinate Suleimani while on the golf course with the president. Graham warned Trump he would be raising the stakes from “playing $10 blackjack to $10,000-a-hand blackjack”. “This is over the top,” the senator said. “How about hitting someone a level below Suleimani, which would be much easier for everyone to absorb?”
World: Read some of the “love letters” Kim Jong Un sent to Trump.
World: Woodward also reported that Trump boasted that he protected Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman after Jamal Khashoggi's brutal murder. "I saved his ass,” Trump said. “I was able to get Congress to leave him alone. I was able to get them to stop.”
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